Camellias for Dwarfs and Elves – an article by Yuri Panchul in American Camellia Yearbook 2011 – full text

Full text of the article about dwarf camellia I wrote a year ago and mentioned in previous post.
This article was published in American Camellia Yearbook 2011.

Полный текст статьи о карликовых камелиях, которую я написал год назад и про которую я написал в предыдущем посте.

Camellias for dwarfs and elves
Yuri Panchul
American Camellia Yearbook 2011

A big disadvantage of the camellia hobby is the fact that eventually almost every camellia is going to become a large tree. Yes, it is possible to prune camellias severely and even create a camellia bonsai. However such drastic techniques are not only labor intensive – they go against the natural habit of growth for the majority of camellias. Are there any dwarf camellias, suitable for a camellia hobbyist with little available space – let’s say, a balcony in a city? Yes and no. There are several camellias that come close, but their variability is no match for the variability of their large camellia relatives. This situation creates an opportunity for the camellia hybridizers of different ranks, including both professionals and backyard hybridizers.

What is a dwarf camellia? An ideal plant should have small leaves, relatively short internodes, high density of foliage and miniature attractive flowers. In addition, a camellia hobbyist would expect to have cultivars with different habits – willowy for groundcovers, rigid and upright for cypress-like columnar growth and everything in between – drooping, spreading, et cetera. A dwarf camellia should be also slow growing, although some people would prefer to have a fast growing cultivar with fine texture (small leaves and flowers) to quickly create a medium-size plant and then control its size with pruning.

Ideally, a set of dwarf cultivars should have all the flower variations available for the rest of camellias – both in color (white, salmon pink, pink, dark pink, red or bicolor) and in form (single, semidouble, formal double, peony or anemone). Unfortunately, only a fraction of the desired combination exists among dwarf camellias.

Last, but not least, it is very desirable to have dwarf cultivars that are easy to grow. So far, many slow-growing and fine-textured camellia cultivars I have are delicate – they have weaker root system and require careful observation when to water and when to fertilize them. These cultivars are also difficult to propagate through grafting and even more difficult by rooting cuttings.

This article describes only camellia species that belong to the section Paracamellia of the genus Camellia, according to the classifications of Robert Sealy (1958) and Ming Tianlu (2000). (Footnote: There is another classification by Chang Hung Ta (1981) that splits Sealy’s Paracamellia section into two sections (Paracamellia and Oleifera), but many botanists, including Dr. William Ackerman feel that these sections are so close that the split is unwarranted.) This section includes sun tolerant Camellia sasanqua, oil-producing Camellia oleifera and many species that potentially cross-breed with Camellia sasanqua, including C. grijsii, C. microphylla, C. puniceiflora and others. The species from the section Paracamellia have generally smaller leaves than the species from other sections, notably from section Camellia that includes popular species C. japonica and C. reticulata. There are some species from other sections of Camellia genus that have small leaves – notably from section Theopsis, but those species are too botanically distant from C. sasanqua group to cross-breed with them.

There are not so many horticulturalists who observed the inheritance of dwarfness in Camellia. An important observation was made by Dr. William Ackerman from Maryland, when he was working on Camellia cold-hardiness program. When crossing non-dwarf C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ with non-dwarf C. sasanqua ‘O’Nishiki’, Dr. Ackerman observed that a quarter of hybrids had genetic dwarfness features – slow growth, smaller leaves and internodes. This classical Mendelian 3:1 ratio suggested to Dr. Ackerman that the dwarfness was in this case regulated by a single recessive gene that was heterozygous in two parents. The same gene was probably acting in well-known Ackerman dwarf hybrids ‘Winter’s Rose’ and ‘Winter’s Red Rider’. However this gene may not explain more extreme cases, like a cultivar ‘Jewel Box’ from Nuccio’s Nurseries in Southern California that has much smaller leaves than Ackerman’s hybrids.

‘Jewel Box’ is the smallest of sasanqua cultivars – its typical leaf is just 30×12 mm as comparing to a more regular leaves of sasanqua cultivar ‘Jean May’ that measures 62×28 mm or a typical Camellia japonica leaf of ‘Kamo Honnami’ that measures 90×60 mm. ‘Jewel Box’ originated in Nuccio’s Nurseries, California. It produces a lot of somewhat wavy single white flowers, sometimes with a pink tint on the border. It appears this cultivar was used to decorate Japanese garden in Huntington Library and Gardens in Sam Marino, California. This garden has the healthiest and best maintained ‘Jewel Box’ planted between rocks along the sidewalk.

‘Jewel Box’ does produce seeds and these seeds sprout, so the cultivar can be used for breeding. However the seedlings are very delicate and easily die when overwatered. The plant’s root system is not very strong, so it is important not to overwater, over-dry or over-fertilize the plant. When grown under sub-optimal condition, this plant frequently shows chrolosis (yellow blotches on leaves) or even have deformed undeveloped leaves. It is difficult to say whether it is a genetic feature, or a result or some virus infection that are frequent among camellia cultivars and result in blotched flowers in pink camellias.

‘Jewel Box’ grows slowly but can be grafted, although it is not the easiest plant to propagate by grafting. Some grafts initially take, but stop growing next year and do not grow beyond stunted stage with a lot of almost opened buds, but no real sprouts. Some other grafts not only take and grow, but develop several large leaves before going back to the size of leaves normal for ‘Jewel Box’. ‘Jewel Box’ may be an interesting subject for a researcher to try different plant hormones – synthetic auxins, gibberellin, etc.

One of the best dwarf sasanqua cultivars is ‘Dwarf Shishi’ (leaf 40×20 mm), a seedling of well-knows cultivar ‘Shishigashira’ of so-called Camellia x hiemalis group of hybrids. (Footnote: C. x hiemalis for a long time was considered to be a species, separate from C. sasanqua, until genetic research proved that C. x hiemalis originated from some ancient hybrid of C. sasanqua with C. japonica). ‘Dwarf Shishi’ was originated by Japanese-American horticulturalist Toichi Domoto (1883-1992) in San Francisco Bay Area. This cultivar has attractive dark pink rose-form double flowers, rigid branches, dense low-growing bush and reasonably strong root system. A scion of ‘Dwarf Shishi’ is very easy to graft on some old overgrown camellia – it quickly produces a very dense sturdy plant. ‘Dwarf Shishi’ is definitely a very promising parent for hybridizing.

There is another cultivar called ‘White Dwarf Shishi’, distributed by Nuccio’s Nurseries. It is not clear whether it is a seedling of ‘Dwarf Shishi’. ‘White Dwarf Shishi’ is a nice plant with double white flowers and straight branches, but its branches are slightly more flexible, habit is more upright and the shape of flowers is different from ‘Dwarf Shishi’. Tom Nuccio hypothesized that this cultivar may be the same as another slow-growing cultivar ‘Kira-shiro-kantsubaki’, but this is certainly not the case – the cultivars of ‘Kira-shiro-kantsubaki’ I got from two different sources (Nuccio’s Nurseries and Camellia Forest Nursery in North Carolina) – are different, especially in flower shape.

Next plant I would like to present is ‘Tanya’ – a well-known cultivar of Japanese origin. The name is not Russian ‘Tanya’, but a Japanese name of a classic Japanese drama. Technically speaking, this cultivar is not a dwarf – it can grow to large size, but its leaves are smaller than leaves of most sasanqua cultivars, and its branches are very flexible, almost willowy, which makes it suitable for groundcovers and even dramatic-looking bonsai-like container plant. ‘Tanya’ produces masses of single pink flowers of a nice tone, and these flowers generate a lot of seeds. I have one seedling of ‘Tanya’ with very small leaves (20 x 12 mm) and numerous seedlings with leaves much below average size. This shows that ‘Tanya’ is a very useful parent plant that can be crossed with double cultivars like ‘Dwarf Shishi’ and others.

There is another unusually-looking cultivar ‘Twinkle Twinkle’ (typical leaf 45×20 mm) from Nuccio’s Nurseries. It is slow growing; it has small leaves and star-shaped little white flowers. This is a cute plant to have, however its root system is weak, which makes the plant quite finicky, and I never got any seeds on it. The shape of the flower is unusual for sasanqua and I would not be surprised if it happens to be an accidental inter-species hybrid.

I already mentioned cultivars ‘Winter’s Rose’ and ‘Winter’s Red Rider’ that originated from Dr. William Ackerman’s cold-hardiness research that started in late 1970s, when Dr. Ackerman discovered that a close sasanqua relative, Camellia oleifera, is more cold-hardy than other Camellia species and can be used to extend the geographical range of camellia growing.

‘Winter’s Rose’ is a cross between C. x hiemalis ‘Otome’ and C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ (pollen). It has relatively large leaves and would not qualify to be dwarf based on purely leaf size. However it is very slow growing and has low-growing habit, so I would call it a dwarf with some reservation. ‘Winter’s Rose’ has strong branches, dark leaves and very nice rose-form double pink flowers – flower shape is a strong point of this cultivar. Unfortunately it has weak root system and is sensitive for overwatering or over-fertilizing. I would recommend to graft it on something stronger, like ‘Kanjiro’, but I not sure whether ‘Winter’s Rose’ will keep its dwarfness being grafted on a strong rootstock – a growth habit of a plant is controlled by a complicated equilibrium of plant hormones and roots sometimes influence the shoots, although this influence is not inheritable by its offspring.

‘Winter’s Red Rider’, another Dr. Ackerman’s cross between C. hiemalis ‘Shishigashira’ and C. oleifera ‘Lu Shan Snow’ (pollen), has single pink flowers and smaller leaves than ‘Winter’s Rose’. Unfortunately I was not able to grow it well because two plants I got had very weak root system and grafts were not successful.

One of the strangest sasanqua plants available is ‘Sasanqua Compacta’ – a cultivar from Nuccio’s Nurseries that has normal size leaves and large single white flowers, but abnormally short internodes. It is probably a consequence of some mutation that severely restricts the production of one of plant growth hormones or possibly broke some specific biochemical pathways related to the hormones without affecting other pathways. It would be an interesting experiment to graft ‘Sasanqua Compacta’ on some strong rootstock (like ‘Kanjiro’ and ‘Narumigata’) and see whether the graft starts growing normally when it is supplied by the growth hormones synthesized by its rootstock.

There are a lot of low-growing cultivars from Paradise Plants nursery in Australia, for example ‘Paradise Little Liane’, ‘Paradise Petite’, ‘Paradise Little Liane’ and others; they are claimed to be true miniatures, with small leaves and habit. However these cultivars are not available in the United States, probably because of export or propagation restrictions.

In order to create novelties, some hybridizers cross not just different cultivars of the same species but different species. There are several interesting species with small leaves from Paracamellia section, notably some varieties of Camellia grijsii, Camellia puniceiflora and Camellia microphylla.

Camellia grijsii has both large and small leaf varieties. The most distinctive feature of C. grijsii is its deep and clearly visible leaf veins. A wild form of C. grijsii has wavy single white flower. There is a rare Chinese cultivar Camellia grijsii ‘Zhenzhucha’ that has miniature rose-form double white flowers and small leaves (35-40 x 21-23 mm). It is very difficult to explain why this cultivar is not selling yet in every garden store in California and other Camellia states. The flowers are beautiful and the plant is easy to grow (especially when grafted). It is possible that this cultivar is a recent import from China – at the moment Camellia grijsii ‘Zhenzhucha’ is available in Nuccio’s Nurseries but nowhere else I am aware of. This cultivar produces a lot of seeds and might be a good potential parent.

Camellia puniceiflora is another species that has both large and small leaf varieties. The small leaf (37-40 x 16 mm) variety has small pink flowers with balls of bright yellow stamens. Camellia puniceiflora is easy to propagate using grafting; it produces a lot of seeds and can be used in hybridization. The only downside – it is not really a dwarf itself because it quite quickly grows into a large spreading bush with low density of leaves. Most plants I would call ‘dwarfs’ are dense and slow-growing.

Another non-dwarf plant with small leaves is ‘Starry Pillar’ (typical leaf 32×16 mm). This is a new cultivar from Nuccio’s Nurseries with masses of snow-white single flowers of the shape that suggests this is not a sasanqua, but an interspecies hybrid. Nevertheless ‘Starry Pillar’ is very sun-tolerant, just like true sasanqua cultivars. It also has a vertical habit with quite dense foliage. I never saw ‘Starry Pillar’ making seeds so it is difficult to tell whether it can be used in hybridization.

Another small-leaved cultivar with even more distinctive columnar habit is ‘Slim’N'Trim’, also from Nuccio’s Nurseries. Its leaf sizes vary widely but give it a sunny spot with not so much fertilizer, and it will grow into a dense column with small leaves (40 x 17 mm). ‘Slim’N'Trim’ makes medium-size single pink flowers with narrow petals and sometimes produces seeds.

Finally, there are several non-dwarf cultivars that are worth mentioning because their leaves are smaller than the leaves of average sasanqua and these cultivars possess at least some features useful for hybridization program. ‘Silverado’ from Nuccio’s Nurseries is slow-growing smaller leaf (45 x20 mm) cultivar with single white flowers and very rare silvery color of its leaves. ‘Enishi’ is a classical Japanese slow-growing cultivar with smaller than average sasanqua leaves (40-50 x 17-20 mm), drooping growth habit and rose-shape, almost formal double pink flowers. ‘Rosy Pillar’ is a new sasanqua from Nuccio’s Nursery with columnar habit, single pink flowers, smaller leaves (50 x 20 mm) and good seed production. ‘Shikoku Stars’ is a dense wild variety of Camellia sasanqua with many relatively small plain white flowers.

Silverado:

Enishi:

Rosy Pillar:

Shikoku Stars:

As we can see, there are very few sasanqua cultivars that can be truly called “Camellias for dwarfs and elves”. A relatively solid candidate for this title is Dwarf Shishi, other good candidates are ‘Jewel Box’ and ‘White Dwarf Shishi’. Rest of candidates can be called ‘dwarfs’ with some reservations – they are either not so dwarf, or not available in the United States, or require more than usual care to stay in shape and healthy. It is likely that a new generation of better dwarf camellias is going to be introduced in the future, and the most promising candidates are waiting both professional and amateur breeders on their seedling benches.

References

  1. Ackerman, William L. 2007. Beyond the Camellia Belt. Breeding, Propagating, and Growing Cold-Hardy Camellias. Batavia, Illinois: Ball Publishing.
  2. Camellia Forest Nursery Catalog. Fall 2007. Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
  3. Chang Hung Ta and Bruce Bartholomew. 1984. Camellias. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press.
  4. Gao Jiyin, Clifford R. Parks and Du Yueqiang. 2005. Collected Species of the genus Camellia. An illustrated outline. China.
  5. Japan Camellia Society. 1999. The Nomenclature of Japanese Camellias and Sasanquas (Nippon Tsubaki . Sasanqua Meikan). English Translation supervised by Thomas J. Savige.
  6. Macoboy, Stirling and Roger Mann. 1998. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Camellias. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press.
  7. Ming Tianlu. 2000. Monograph of the genus Camellia. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, P.R. China
  8. Nuccio’s Nurseries Catalog. 2007-2008. Altadena, California.
  9. Riess Suzanne B. Toichi Domoto. A Japanese-American nurseryman’s life in California: floriculture and family, 1883-1992. Interviews Conducted by Suzanne B. Riess in 1992. The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
  10. Sealy, Robert J. 1958. A Revision of the Genus Camellia. London: The Royal Horticultural Society.
  11. Trehane, Jennifer. 2007. Camellias. The Gardener’s Encyclopedia. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press.

Photo albums of the cultivars mentioned in the article
Фотоальбомы культиваров упомянутых в статье

  1. Dwarf Shishi
  2. Enishi
  3. Camellia grijsii
  4. Camellia grijsii ‘Zhenzhucha’
  5. Jewel Box
  6. Kira Shiro Kantsubaki
  7. Camellia puniceiflora, light variety
  8. Rosy Pillar
  9. Sasanqua Compacta
  10. Shikoku Stars
  11. Silverado
  12. Slim’N'Trim
  13. Starry Pillar
  14. Tanya
  15. Twinkle, Twinkle
  16. White Dwarf Shishi
  17. Winter’s Red Rider
  18. Winter’s Rose

Camellias for Dwarfs and Elves – an article by Yuri Panchul in American Camellia Yearbook 2011

I just received a new American Camellia Yearbook 2011 in the mail and it has my article about compact sasanqua cultivars, Camellias for Dwarfs and Elves. The American Camellia Yearbook is the most prestigious periodical about camellias published by the American Camellia Society. I have an issue of every single American Camellia Yearbook since 1946 – all 66 of them. Below I made photo pictures of all pages, relevant to my article.

Я только что получил по почте новый выпуск ежегодника American Camellia Yearbook 2011, в котором напечатали мою статью про компактные культивары камелии сазанки – “Камелии для гномов и эльфов”. American Camellia Yearbook является самым престижным журналом о камелиях, который публикует Американское Общество Камелий. По количеству и качеству статей ему нет равных в мире. У меня есть каждый выпуск American Camellia Yearbook с 1946 года – все 66 книжек. Внизу я сфотографировал все страницы журнала, имеющие отношение к моей статье.

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Yuri Panchul’s seedlings evaluated during 2011-2012 season. Part I

Seedling I like:

009:

010:

016:

017:

Seedlings I would like to evaluate for one more year:

025:

028:

035:

036:

058:

062:

078:

079:

All seedlings:
Continue reading ‘Yuri Panchul’s seedlings evaluated during 2011-2012 season. Part I’

Sun Camellias – a book published by Southern California Camellia Society

Southern California Camellia Society published a 50-page book called Sun Camellias about Fall-blooming Camellia sasanqua. I contributed to this book 28 photo pictures (mostly from my garden) and a small text about camellia breeders from my website www.sazanka.org. If you are interested in purchasing this book from the Camellia Society, you can do it on their website www.socalcamellias.org in the section Make a Purchase.

Общество Камелий Южной Калифорнии опубликовало книжку на 50 страниц под названием “Камелии солнца” oб осеннецветущей камелии горной или Camellia sasanqua. Я сам внес вклад в эту книжку – 28 сделанных мною фотографий камелий (преимущественно из моего сада) и небольшой текст о селекционерах камелий с моего сайта www.sazanka.org. Если вы хотите приобрести книжку Общества Камелий, вы можете сделать это на их сайте www.socalcamellias.org в разделе Make a Purchase.

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Camellia News – the journal of Camellias Australia

“Camellia News”, the journal of Camellias Australia, had recently published some of my materials about Camellia sasanqua.

Some information about Camellias Australia from their website http://www.camellia.org.au

Camellias Australia Inc. (formerly the Australian Camellia Research Society Inc.) is made up of a confederation of Australian affiliated camellia organisations. All states except Queensland, The Australian Capital and Northern Territories have affiliated camellia bodies. C.A. has an Executive consisting of a National President, Secretary and Treasurer. C.A. does not control any of the affiliate bodies but acts as a umbrella organisation re matters of National Interest, and liaison. C.A. conducts an Annual General Meeting of affiliates which is hosted on a national rotation system. Usually, a National Camellia Show is held in conjunction with the A.G.M.

The website contains many articles on various camellia subjects. Two articles that especially caught my attention:

* The History of Camellias in Australia, written by Ken Tate and presented at the National Camellia congress in 2006

* Optimismisation – a discussion paper presented at the 2010 Australian National Camellia Congress, in Hobart, Tasmania by Andrew Raper – Past President of Camellias Victoria and specialist camellia nurseryman. Due to import restricts on new cultivars coming into Australia, Andrew’s inventive title really means ‘Propagate or Perish’


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Sasanqua haiku

http://www.michaelhaldane.com/HaikuJapanese1.htm
山茶花や
白壁淡き
白き影
sazanka ya
shira-kabe awaki
shiroki kage
sazanka
a white wall with a pale
white silhouette
Ishizaki Ryokufū (1935-)

Interesting striped seedling yuri_panchul_2005_017_nodami_ushiro

I got a very interesting seedling with striped pink/white petals – yuri_panchul_2005_017_nodami_ushiro.

Striped sasanquas are very rare – the only one I know is a hybrid Stars’N'Stripes, and Stars’N'Stripes is not really a typical sasanqua – it is sensitive to sunlight and has elongated leaves comparing to traditional sasanquas. Most bicolor sasanquas are not striped, some are blotched – the blotching pattern is the result of a relatively harmless virus.

My new seedling’s parent is probably Nodami Ushiro. I am going to evaluate it for a while to make sure this striped pattern is stable. In the main time I will probably propagate it by grafting.






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Asakura – a Japanese sasanqua with large flat semi-double white flowers and upright growing habit

Asakura (朝倉, あさくら) is a Japanese sasanqua cultivar with large, relatively flat semi-double white flowers and has a relatively vigorous upright growing habit. Asakura flower frequently has a pinkish edge early in the flower development. The stamens are relatively well developed, comparing to full double forms. It blooms relatively early. According to the book “Nippon Tsubaki – Sasanqua Meikan” (日本ツバキ・サザンカ名鑑), Asakura originated in Kurume City, Fukuoka Prefecture, and was named by Shunsuke Hisatomi. It is available in the United States from Nuccio’s Nurseries.

Asakura’s main “competitors” are Narumigata and White Doves (Mine-no-yuki). All three are fast growing with large white flowers.

Asakura versus Narumigata.

Narumigata flower is single, Asakura flower is semi-double.
Narumigata grows faster than Asakura, although Asakura is also a relatively fast growing.
Both Narumigata flower and Asakura flower have pink edges in the early stages of the flower development.

Asakura versus White Doves (Mine-no-yuki).

White Doves flower is fully double, Asakura flower is semi-double.
Asakura flower has a pinkish edge in its early stages, White Doves is completely white.
Asakura plant has a vertical habit, while White Doves is spreading.
Asakura flower is somewhat larger, more rounded, relatively more symmetrical and more flat than a typical flower of White Doves.

Comparing Asakuras with other sasanquas:
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Interesting small-leaved bicolor seedling yuri_panchul_2005_001_chance

I like this chance seedling because:

1. It has wavy petals similar to its possible parent Nodami Ushiro (unfortunately the seedling label was dropped, so I don’t know its seed parent for sure).
2. Is has small shiny leaves like Hiryu.
3. Elegant bicolor.
4. It has straight shoots with small internodes – nice to make bonsai.

I am going to keep and propagate this seedling.


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Nokorika – a Higo sasanqua with a strong scent

According to the book “Nippon Tsubaki – Sasanqua Meikan” (日本ツバキ・サザンカ名鑑):

Nokorika. 残り香 (Lingering Perfume), from Kumamoto Pref.
Deep purplish red occasionally with slender white streaks, single, medium, very early. Leaves elliptic to narrowly elliptic, medium. Upright, vigorous. The original tree survives in Kumamoto City, designated and named by Higo Sasanqua Society in 1968.

I like this cultivar. It has an interesting color, strong scent and general elegance. It is rare and I will keep it. I found it in Reagan Nursery in Fremont, California in Spring 2009. The container had a label “Belmont Nursery” which is somewhat puzzling since Belmont Nursery does not carry this cultivar (see their list of sasanquas). According to their website they carry only the standard set of sasanquas similar to sasanqua offering from Monrovia.

Another interesting thing about this plant – it is a “Higo sasanqua”. Many people know about Higo japonicas originated by samurai clan Kumamoto and promoted in the West by Italian horticulturalist Franco Ghirardi.

See also mention of ‘Nokorika’ in http://www5e.biglobe.ne.jp/~yoshii/sazannkahinnshu/hinnshu1.htm


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The Art of Camellia Grafting. Example 1.

Continue reading ‘The Art of Camellia Grafting. Example 1.’

Seedling yuri_panchul_2003_024_oleifera evaluation – unsuccessful

I decided to start writing down all seedling evaluations – even for very poor seedlings. I think it will help me to develop successful evaluation criteria.

I got the seed for yuri_panchul_2003_024_oleifera not from a plant in my garden, but from Camellia Forest Nursery in 2003. The resulting seedling was blooming first time 2009.09.02. The flower is a typical wild-type C. oleifera flower, nothing special. The bush shape is spreading, branches are flexible and have long internodes – this is not practical unless you plant to grow an espalier. Leaves are not shiny and way too large for my taste – the largest leaves are approximately 110×60, 100×60 and 90×70 mm (4.3 x 2.4, 4.0 x 2.4, 3.5 x 2.8 inch). The root system is pretty strong.

The plant was grown in somewhat poor condition – it was too dry during one of the heat waves that coincidentally happened during the period of active growth back in April-May. As a result some leaves are deformed. The plant is also root bound but this can be easily corrected by proper root pruning. There are some slugs living at the bottom of the container – this is natural because the container was standing on a plastic shelf lying on the ground. The damage from these slugs appear to be very minor.

The conclusion. This plant should be used as a rootstock during next February. The root bound problem can be corrected after 1 year.


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An article in The Camellia Journal about the convention of American Camellia Society

I contributed some photo pictures to The Camellia Journal, a quarterly publications of the American Camellia Society (ACS). I made those pictures during the March ACS convention in Foster City, California. You can see one of the pictures published in the last issue of the magazine – a picture with the group of ACS attendies. I included both the cover of the magazine and the article about the convention below. You can see my other posts about the convention here:

Part 1. Bob Ehrhart’s Camellia Garden.
Part 2. Gallo Camellia Garden.
Part 3. Group pictures and the first reception.

All pictures are clickable:


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A new book about camellias is published in China

A new book about camellias is published in China. It is written by Shen Yinchun 沈荫椿, a Chinese American living in the San Francisco Bay Area. I (Yuri Panchul) contributed more than 30 photo pictures to this great publication. The preface is written by Barbara Tuffy, a recent president of the American Camellia Society. American camellia people usually call Shen Yinchun “Y.C. Shen” or simply “Y.C.”


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The history of camellias

The New Times magazine logo / Логотип журнала Новое ВремяRussian weekly “Novoye Vremya” (The New Times) published my article about the history of camellias in Japan, China, Europe and the United States.

Российский журнал “Новое Время” (The New Times) опубликовал мою статью об истории камелий.

http://newtimes.ru/articles/detail/3288/

To read my article in English using automatic translation by Google Translate, you can click here – http://tinyurl.com/mtroq5
Japanese – http://tinyurl.com/nzfn8e
Traditional Chinese – http://tinyurl.com/n2tegh
Simplified Chinese – http://tinyurl.com/npclos

Цветок на все времена

Романтическая красота и древность происхождения камелий стали источником множества мифов и загадочных историй, связанных с этой «царицей сада». В разные века камелия была символом и богини солнца Аматэрасу — прародительницы японских императоров, и символом Иисуса Христа, она олицетворяла то долголетие, то роковую переменчивость судьбы. При этом мало кто знает, что роскошный цветущий куст камелии — ближайший родственник чайного куста, источника экономического благополучия многих регионов Азии. Откуда взялись камелии и в чем тайна этого великолепного цветка — разбирался The New Times

Camellia— Сэр Джон поднялся наверх и принес шкатулку с драгоценностями. Когда я открыл шкатулку на столе и все собрались вокруг него, леди велела мне зажечь лампы в оранжерее, так как гости вскоре должны были идти смотреть красные камелии. Но красных камелий там не было!
— Я не понял вас.
— Они исчезли, сэр! Исчезли все до одной! — хрипло выкрикнул наш посетитель. — Когда я вошел в оранжерею, то так и прирос к мес­ту, держа лампу над головой: мне показалось, что я сошел с ума. Знаменитый куст был в полной сохранности, но от дюжины больших цветов, которыми я восхищался днем, не осталось даже лепестка.
Шерлок Холмс протянул свою длинную руку за трубкой.
— Прелестно, прелестно, — сказал он. — Эта история доставляет мне чрезвычайное удовольствие…

Адриан Конан Дойл, Джон Диксон Карр. «Рубин Авас»

Маргарита бывала на всех первых представлениях и все вечера проводила в театрах и на балах. Каждый раз, когда давалась новая пьеса, ее наверняка можно было встретить в театре с тремя вещами, с которыми она никогда не расставалась и которые лежали всегда на барьере ее ложи в бенуаре: с лорнетом, коробкой конфет и букетом камелий.
В течение двадцати пяти дней каждого месяца камелии были белые, а остальные пять дней они были красные, никому не известна была причина, почему цветы менялись…

Александр Дюма-сын. «Дама с камелиями»

Камелии — самый яркий пример разницы в восприятии красоты на Востоке и на Западе. Если поставить рядом цветки, которые были популярны среди японских самураев, и те, которыми любовались английские аристократы XIX века, то может показаться, что перед нами совсем разные растения. Но и те и другие прекрасны.

Цветок самураев

CamelliaПервое упоминание о камелиях относится к I веку нашей эры, когда губернатор провинции острова Кюсю лично прикончил главарей банды преступников дубиной, сделанной из древесины камелии. С тех пор эта часть Кюсю называется Цубаки по японскому названию камелии японской (Camellia japonica), а само поле битвы названо «Кровавое поле». Возможно, в названии отразилось то, что цветки дикой Цубаки — ярко-красного цвета, а первый в истории белый цветок этого вида появился только в VII веке и вызвал такой интерес, что его даже принесли показать императору Тэмму.
Continue reading ‘The history of camellias’

The first book I ever read about Camellias was published in Ukrainian language

Below is the scan of the first book I ever read about Camellias. The book was called “Travels with houseplants”, it was written by Mykola Verzilin and published in 1973 in Kiev, Ukraine in Ukrainian language. This chapter was describing both tea plant and decorative camellias.


Continue reading ‘The first book I ever read about Camellias was published in Ukrainian language’

American Camellia Society – 2009 Annual Meeting. Part 3. Group pictures and the first reception.

Continued from Part 1 and Part 2.

Back in March 19-21 I attended the annual meeting of the American Camellia Society. This year it was in Foster City near San Francisco. You can also read about the event on the website of the American Camellia Society.

At the end of the conference I made two group photos. You can click to enlarge:

I also made many photo pictures of the conference attendees during the first reception on March 19:

Continue reading ‘American Camellia Society – 2009 Annual Meeting. Part 3. Group pictures and the first reception.’

American Camellia Society – 2009 Annual Meeting. Part 2. Gallo Camellia Garden.

Continued from Part 1.

Back in March 19-21 I attended the annual meeting of the American Camellia Society. This year it was in Foster City near San Francisco. On Saturday, March 21 all the conference attendees went to the city of Modesto, California for the National Camellia Show hosted this year by the Camellia Society of Modesto. The show was in the Administrative Building of Gallo Winery. As a part of the conference we took a tour in the beautiful Gallo Camellia Garden and had a party inside Gallo Wine Cellar. You can also read about the event on the website of the American Camellia Society.

My photo pictures of the Gallo Camellia Garden, National Show and Gallo Wine Cellar:

Continue reading ‘American Camellia Society – 2009 Annual Meeting. Part 2. Gallo Camellia Garden.’

American Camellia Society – 2009 Annual Meeting. Part 1. Bob Ehrhart’s Camellia Garden.

Back in March 19-21 I attended the annual meeting of the American Camellia Society. This year it was in Foster City near San Francisco. During the first day we went to the garden of Robert and Linda Ehrhart in Walnut Creek, California. Bob Ehrhart’s garden is one of the largest private collections in the United States. It has several thousand large plants growing mostly in containers. Bob’s website is www.camelliagrower.com. You can also read about Bob Ehrhart on the website of the American Camellia Society.

My photo pictures of the event:

Continue reading ‘American Camellia Society – 2009 Annual Meeting. Part 1. Bob Ehrhart’s Camellia Garden.’

The religion of tea in China and Japan

The New Times magazine logo / Логотип журнала Новое ВремяRussian weekly “Novoye Vremya” (The New Times) published my article about the culture of tea in China and Japan. To write this article I asked several question one of the leading experts on genus Camellia – Professor Gao Jiyin from from Fuyang Institute of Subtropical Forestry, China.

Российский журнал “Новое Время” (The New Times) опубликовал мою статью о культуре чая в Китае и Японии. Для написания статьи я задал несколько вопросов одному из ведущих специалистов по ботанике чайного куста из Исследовательского института субтропической растительности в провинции Чжэцзян на юго-востоке Китая.

http://archive.newtimes.ru/magazine/2009/issue106/doc-60764.html

To read this article in English using automatic translation by Google Translate, you can click here – http://tinyurl.com/d6eues
Traditional Chinese – http://tinyurl.com/cggt7p
Simplified Chinese – http://tinyurl.com/cf7v35
Japanese – http://tinyurl.com/cf5lso

TeaРелигия чая. В Европе и Америке чай — всего лишь напиток. В Китае и Японии, откуда он пришел, — это великая культура и фантастически интересная история. Чем объясняются романтические чувства к чаю у китайцев и японцев — узнавал The New Times
Continue reading ‘The religion of tea in China and Japan’

Camellia sasanqua Tai-shuhai 大朱盃

Camellia sasanqua ‘Tai-shuhai’ 大朱盃 (たいしゅはい) meaning “Large Vermilion Cup”. According to Nippon Tsubaki ・ Sasanqua Meikan, Tai-shuhai came from Fukuoka Prefecture. The cultivar originated and named in Kurume in 1960s by Shunsuke Hisatomi.

I got the cutting of this cultivar from Nuccio’s Nurseries. When the plant started to bloom on January 20, 2009, I was amazed by the freshness of colors and the shape of its flower:

Found a Chinese website that sells rare Camellia books

Although I don’t speak Chinese I was always curious to buy the book Monograph of The Genus Camellia 世界山茶属的研究 by Ming Tien-Lu (2000) since this is one of three main books about the botany of the genus Camellia. Two other books are A Revision of the Genus Camellia by J. Robert Sealy (1958) and Camellias by Chang Hung Ta and Bruce Bartholomew (1984).

And finally I found the book!

http://www.hceis.com/book.asp?id=1376

Monograph of The Genus Camellia by Ming Tien-Lu

They also have a new book about sasanquas I was also looking for – Sasanqua (Cha Mei) 茶梅 by Xu Biyu and Lin Tianfei et al (2007).

http://www.hceis.com/book.asp?id=7319

Sasanqua (Cha Mei) by Xu Biyu and Lin Tianfei et al

Wow! Now I want to go to the nearby Foothill College to take an introductory course in Chinese (I was studying Japanese over there and it was very decent).

John Wang – a camellia hybridizer living in San Francisco Bay Area

On January 25, 2009 I visited a well known camellia hybridizer John Wang, a Chinese American living in San Francisco Bay Area.

John Wang places camellias inside the house to hand pollinate them. Room temperature increases the chance of success and no insects can interfere. John does not believe in open pollination of camellias – he chooses parents very carefully because he cannot afford to plant thousands of chance seedlings like for example Nuccio’s Nurseries does:

John Wang places camellias inside the house to hand pollinate them

This camellia hybrid, created by John Wang, is a seedling of Tama-no-ura:

A camellia hybrid created by John Wang

Another seedling from John Wang has a rare yellow tint:

A camellia hybrid, created by John Wang, has a rare yellow tint

Continue reading ‘John Wang – a camellia hybridizer living in San Francisco Bay Area’

A new catalog from Camellia Forest Nursery, Fall 2008 – my review

Camellia Forest Nursery is a nursery in North Carolina managed by Kai Mei and David Parks. Kai Mei is a wife of Dr. Clifford Parks (one of the authors of “Collected Species of the Genus Camellia”, 2005) and David Parks is their son.

Mieko Tanaka

The most interesting sasanqua hybrid offered this year is a true red ‘Mieko Tanaka’. Almost all previous “red” sasanquas were actually dark pinks (for example ‘Bonanza’ and ‘Reverend Ida’). The only previous true red was ‘Yuletide’, a chance seedling of Hiryu, originated in Nuccio’s Nurseries back in 1963.

The basic problem with red color is that wild C. sasanqua has no red (or pink) pigment – anthocyanin.

According to Dr. Takayuki Tanaka and other researchers, all pink sasanqua cultivars probably originated from an ancient C. japonica x sasanqua hybrid approximately 400 years ago almost definitely in Japan. The estimation 400 years comes from chloroplast genome DNA (cpDNA) analysis. Additionally, athocyanin chromatography demonstrates that all pink sasanquas (together with x hiemalis and x vernalis hybrids) share the form of anthocyanin with C. japonica and does not have pigments specific for C. reticulata and C. saluensis.

Based on this information, Dr. Tanaka was working on sasanqua-japonica hybridization and finally he developed a cultivar ‘Mieko Tanaka’ (C. x vernalis ‘Gaisen’ x C. japonica).

Plain Jane, O’Nishiki, Winter’s Rose and Winter’s Red Rider

Another important cultivar now available for sale in Camellia Forest Nursery is C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’. This plain white flower has two distinctive quantities.

First of all, it is one of the most cold-hardy camellias, used by Dr. William Ackerman for his cold-hardiness hybridization program. For example, Dr. Ackerman claims that his cultivar ‘Winter’s Rose’ (C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ x C. x hiemalis ‘Otome’) can survive winter temperatures down to -15 F / -26 C.

Second, according to Dr. Ackerman, ‘Plain Jane’ may be used to create dwarf cultivars that are useful as patio and bonsai plants. Particularly, ‘Winter’s Rose’ is also a dwarf camellia. When Dr. Ackerman crossed ‘Plain Jane’ with C. sasanqua ‘O’Nishiki’, he got 3:1 mendelian ratio between normal and dwarf seedlings. This suggested that both ‘Plain Jane’ and ‘O’Nishiki’ carry heterozygous alleles of a dwarfiness gene. (Yes, I know that both plants are hexaploids – so an additional explanation from Dr. Ackerman is needed).

Luckily I got cuttings of ‘O’Nishiki’ last Summer from Mr. Garet Uemura who lives in Hawaii. Thank you, Mr. Uemura!
Continue reading ‘A new catalog from Camellia Forest Nursery, Fall 2008 – my review’

Found an interesting article about a Japanese-American nurseryman Toichi Domoto

Toichi Domoto

A Japanese-American nurseryman’s life in California: floriculture and family, 1883-1992

With Introductions by Julius Nuccio and Ernest Wertheim
Interviews Conducted by Suzanne B. Riess in 1992

The Bancroft Library
University of California, Berkeley

http://tinyurl.com/4ohuw6
Copy at http://sazanka.org/pages/toichi_domoto

This sasanqua cultivar, ‘Dwarf Shishi’, was originated by Toichi Domoto in 1988:

It is excellent for bonsai.

Also I found a very likely photo pictures of Toichi Domoto (need to check with Tom Nuccio) on http://tinyurl.com/4795g8. I am almost sure this is the same one (born 1902, high school in East Bay):

Continue reading ‘Found an interesting article about a Japanese-American nurseryman Toichi Domoto’

‘Nodami Ushiro’ – a Higo-like sasanqua

Camellia sasanqua ‘Nodami Ushiro’. Introduced by Domoto Nursery, California, 1934, but is originally from Japan. Stirling Macoboy believes that the name means “a backward glance” in Japanese, but he is probably incorrect. Since I cannot find this name in Japanese sources and my Japanese wife tells me that Japanese people are not likely to name a flower this way (“mi” meaning “body”), I guess that the original name was different. From browsing the history of Toichi Domoto I got an impression that he did not know Kanji well because he was a second-generation Japanese-American. Because of it, Toichi Domoto probably made a naming mistake when he imported it.

It is difficult to explain what is so special about ‘Nodami Ushiro’. It is a single pink camellia with a lot of single pink competitors – ‘Plantation Pink’, ‘Cleopatra’, ‘Tanya’ and others. However Jennifer Trehane in her camellia book calls ‘Nodami Ushiro’ “a subtle, sophisticated camellia”. Where does this sophistication come from? I have an explanation.
Continue reading ‘‘Nodami Ushiro’ – a Higo-like sasanqua’

Camellia grijsii

This month The International Camellia Society put two of my camellia photo pictures to the front page of their website. One is a picture of Camellia japonica ‘Kamo Honnami’ (see their website), and another is a picture of Camellia grijsii, a species related to C. sasanqua:

Camellia grijsii
C. grijsii

Camellia grijsii (长瓣短柱茶 in Chinese) Hance (1879) is a wild species of section Paracamellia. It is related to C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissii. It was collected in 1861 in Fujian by C.F.M. de Grijs. It is distributed in China (Fujian, Hubei, Sichuan, Guangxi) and used for a high-quality oil production. C. grijsii is closely related to another species – C. yuhsienensis, that is a parent of a popular cultivar ‘Yume’.

I got my two plants of C. grijsii from Nuccio’s Nurseries. The first one (shown above) has single white flowers and the second one is a double-flowered Chinese cultivar called ‘Zhenzhucha’:

Camellia grijsii 'Zhenzhucha'
Camellia grijsii ‘Zhenzhucha’

Camellia grijsii has great hybridizing potential. Two plants in my garden have small leaves with impressed veins and very columnar shape. I believe there are also varieties with larger leaves, but I am specifically interested in small-leaved cultivars.

Another great feature of C. grijsii is its cluster-flowering habit. However in my garden C. grijsii flowers from January to March, so it will be a challenge to cross it with Fall-flowering sasanquas. Probably I will have to store some pollen from sasanquas in refrigerator for a couple of months.

Another problem is chromosome number. According to Kondo and his associates it has a variety of chromosome numbers 2n = 30, 60, 75 and 90 (see the reference in Collected Species of the Genus Camellia, an Illustrated Outline by Gao Jiyin, Clifford R. Parks and Du Yuequiang).
Continue reading ‘Camellia grijsii’

Chinese names for species

Here is Chinese names of Camellia species from sections Oleifera and Paracamellia. Recent genetic research suggest that these sections should be grouped back together to the original Sealy’s section Paracamellia.

Sect. Oleifera H. T. Chang (油茶组)

C. gauchowensis H. T. Chang (高州油茶)
C. oleifera Abel (油茶)
C. vietnamensis T. C. Huang ex Hu (越南油茶)
C. sasanqua Thunb. (茶梅)
C. lanceoleosa H. T. Chang & J. S. Chiu (狭叶油茶)

Sect. Paracamellia Sealy (短柱茶组)

C. fluviatilis Hand.-Mazz. (窄叶短柱茶)
C. grijsii Hance (长瓣短柱茶)
C. yuhsienensis Hu (攸县油茶)
C. odorata L. S. Xie & Z. Y. Zhang (芳香短柱茶)
C. shensiensis H. T. Chang (陕西短柱茶)
C. confusa Craib (小果短柱茶)
C. kissi Wall. (落瓣短柱茶)
C. tenii Sealy (大姚短柱茶)
C. hiemalis Nakai (冬红短柱茶)
C. miyagii (Koidz.) Makino & Nemoto (琉球短柱茶)
C. brevistyla (Hayata) Coh. Stuart (短柱茶)
C. obtusifolia H. T. Chang (钝叶短柱茶)
C. puniceiflora H. T. Chang (粉红短柱茶)
C. microphylla (Merr.) Chien (细叶短柱茶)
C. maliflora Lindl. (樱花短柱茶)
C. phaeoclada H. T. Chang (褐枝短柱茶)

Sources:

Gao J-Y (高继银), Parks CR, Du Y-Q (杜跃强). 2005. Collected species of the genus Camellia an illustrated outline (山茶属植物主要原种彩色图集). Hangzhou: Zhejiang Science and Technology Press.

Lin X-Y (林秀艳), Peng Q-F (彭秋发), Lü H-F (吕洪飞), Du Y-Q (杜跃强), Tang B-Y (汤妣颖). 2008. Leaf anatomy of Camellia sect. Oleifera and sect. Paracamellia (Theaceae) with reference to their taxonomic significance. Journal of Systematics and Evolution (植物分类学报) 46:183–193. http://www.plantsystematics.com

Shen Jin-Bo, Lü H-F (吕洪飞), Peng Q-F (彭秋发), Zheng Ju-Fang, Tian Yu-Mei. 2008. FTIR spectra of Camellia sect. Oleifera, sect. Paracamellia, and sect. Camellia (Theaceae) with reference to their taxonomic significance. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 46 (2): 194–204. http://www.plantsystematics.com

2008 National Camellia Show at Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania

I got two awards on 2008 National Camellia Show at Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. I took part in photography competition.

The first photo picture is of species Camellia puniceiflora from section Paracamellia:

Camellia puniceiflora (粉红短柱茶 in Chinese) Chang 1981. A wild species distributed in China: Zhejiang, Hunan. Small leaves, grows up to 2 m (6 f) high.

The second photo picture is of sasanqua cultivar called Chojiguruma:

Chojiguruma, 丁子車 in Japanese. Means “a wheel of anemone” in Japanese. Introduced in 1789. Originated in Kansai, spread to many places. This anemone form is very rare for C. sasanqua cultivars.

The complete list of all results of the Camellia Photography Show is below:
Continue reading ’2008 National Camellia Show at Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania’

Guestbook and Announcements

Welcome, you can leave a message here. I am looking for the following species and cultivars: Camellia microphylla, Bonsai Baby, Paradise Petite, Camellia oleifera ‘Jaune’. If you want to use any of my photo pictures please let me know.

Yuri Panchul

Species and cultivars gallery

1. Introduction

Yuri Panchul Garden

2. Wild form

Camellia sasanqua, selection ‘Shikoku Stars’. Thunberg 1784. Native to southern Japan: southern Shikoku, Kyushu, Ryukyu islands. Thought to be a geographical variant of C. oleifera native to China. Grows up to 26 ft (8 m) Flowers early fall to mid-winter. Chromosome numbers: 2n = 90 (wild forms), 45-120 (cultivars) (Kondo, 1977).

More photos

3. Big white single

Narimugata. Japan, introduced 1898. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Name means “Narumi Bay”. Pentaploid, very vigorous, was crossed with C. reticulata to get ‘Girls’ group of hybrids.

More photos

4. White double

White Doves. The Japanese name is ‘Mine-no-yuki’ meaning “Snow on the Ridge”. Introduced in 1898.

More photos

5. Single pinks

Hugh Evans. Originated in Coolidge Rare Garden Plants, California in 1943.

More photos

6. Double pinks

Shishigashira. C. x hiemalis. Means “Lion’s Head” in Japanese. Originated and spread in Kansai and Chubu. First mentioned in Engeikai Zasshi in 1894. Called ‘Kan-tsubaki’ in Kanto area since 1933.

More photos

7. Semi-formal pinks

Enishi. Means “Charming Appearance” in Japanese. Originated in Kumamoto. A seedling of a seed given to Kiyofusa Saito by Shigeru Sugiyama. This cultivar is recognized by Higo Sasanqua Society.

More photos

8. Peony pinks

Rosette. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1980.

More photos

9. Anemone pinks

Chojiguruma. Means “a wheel of anemone” in Japanese. Introduced in 1789. Originated in Kansai, spread to many places.

More photos

10. Dark pinks

Bonanza. C. x hiemalis, seedling of ‘Crimson Bride’. Originated by Tom Dodd Jr, Semmes, Alabama in 1962.

More photos

11. Yuletide and Hiryu

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

More photos

12. Bicolor

Navajo. Imported from Japan by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1956. The original name is lost.

More photos

13. Egao group

Egao. C. x vernalis. Name means “smiling face” in Japanese. Originated in Kurume or Fukuoka. Imported to the United States by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in either 1972 or 1977 (?).

More photos

14. Oleifera and Ackerman hybrids

Winter’s Rose. C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ x C. x hiemalis ‘Otome’. William Ackerman. Survives very low winter temperatures – down to -15 F / -26 C.

More photos

15. Other species and hybrids

Stars’N'Stripes. A chance seedling of ‘Christmas Rose’ (Williams’ Lavender x Shishigashira). Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

More photos

16. Low growing and small foliage

Starry Pillar (N#9820). A chance seedling, might be a sasanqua-tenuiflora hybrid. Columnar habit. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries.

More photos

17. Foliage

Silverado. Light gray green small leaves. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

18. Credits

All photo pictures © Yuri Panchul.
Text information is compiled from the following sources:

Ackerman, William L. 2007. Beyond the Camellia Belt. Breeding, Propagating, and Growing Cold-Hardy Camellias. Batavia, Illinois: Ball Publishing.

Ackerman, William L. 2002. Growing Camellias in Cold Climates. Baltimore, Maryland, Noble House.

Camellia Forest Nursery Catalog. Fall 2007. Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Chang Hung Ta and Bruce Bartholomew. 1984. Camellias. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press.

Gao Jiyin, Clifford R. Parks and Du Yueqiang. 2005. Collected Species of the genus Camellia. An illustrated outline. China.

Japan Camellia Society. 1999. The Nomenclature of Japanese Camellias and Sasanquas (Nippon Tsubaki . Sasanqua Meikan). English Translation supervised by Thomas J. Savige.

Macoboy, Stirling and Roger Mann. 1998. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Camellias. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press.

Nuccio’s Nurseries Catalog. 2007-2008. Altadena, California.

Sealy, Robert J. 1958. A Revision of the Genus Camellia. London: The Royal Horticultural Society.

Trehane, Jennifer. 2007. Camellias. The Gardener’s Encyclopedia. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press.

Introduction

Yuri Panchul Garden

Wild form

Camellia sasanqua, selection ‘Shikoku Stars’. Thunberg 1784. Native to southern Japan: southern Shikoku, Kyushu, Ryukyu islands. Thought to be a geographical variant of C. oleifera native to China. Grows up to 26 ft (8 m) Flowers early fall to mid-winter. Chromosome numbers: 2n = 90 (wild forms), 45-120 (cultivars) (Kondo, 1977).

Camellia sasanqua, selection ‘Shikoku Stars’. Thunberg 1784. Native to southern Japan: southern Shikoku, Kyushu, Ryukyu islands. Thought to be a geographical variant of C. oleifera native to China. Grows up to 26 ft (8 m) Flowers early fall to mid-winter. Chromosome numbers: 2n = 90 (wild forms), 45-120 (cultivars) (Kondo, 1977).

Camellia sasanqua, selection ‘Shikoku Stars’. Thunberg 1784. Native to southern Japan: southern Shikoku, Kyushu, Ryukyu islands. Thought to be a geographical variant of C. oleifera native to China. Grows up to 26 ft (8 m) Flowers early fall to mid-winter. Chromosome numbers: 2n = 90 (wild forms), 45-120 (cultivars) (Kondo, 1977).

C. miyagii. Gen-ichi Koidzumi, Makino and Nemoto (1931). Ryukyu islands, Japan. Sometimes treated not as a separate species, but as a regional variety of C. sasanqua. Chromosome number: 2n = 90 (Kondo, 1977).

C. miyagii. Gen-ichi Koidzumi, Makino and Nemoto (1931). Ryukyu islands, Japan. Sometimes treated not as a separate species, but as a regional variety of C. sasanqua. Chromosome number: 2n = 90 (Kondo, 1977).

C. miyagii. Gen-ichi Koidzumi, Makino and Nemoto (1931). Ryukyu islands, Japan. Sometimes treated not as a separate species, but as a regional variety of C. sasanqua. Chromosome number: 2n = 90 (Kondo, 1977).

Big white single

Narimugata. Japan, introduced 1898. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Name means “Narumi Bay”. Pentaploid, very vigorous, was crossed with C. reticulata to get ‘Girls’ group of hybrids.

Narimugata. Japan, introduced 1898. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Name means “Narumi Bay”. Pentaploid, very vigorous, was crossed with C. reticulata to get ‘Girls’ group of hybrids.

Narimugata. Japan, introduced 1898. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Name means “Narumi Bay”. Pentaploid, very vigorous, was crossed with C. reticulata to get ‘Girls’ group of hybrids.

Narimugata. Japan, introduced 1898. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Name means “Narumi Bay”. Pentaploid, very vigorous, was crossed with C. reticulata to get ‘Girls’ group of hybrids.

Setsugekka. The meaning in Japanese is “Flower white as a snow reflected by the Moon”. Introduced in Japan. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Appeared in 1898 in Jisuke Minagawa’s Chabaika Taishu, then at Minagawa Chinka’en Nursery.

Setsugekka. The meaning in Japanese is “Flower white as a snow reflected by the Moon”. Introduced in Japan. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Appeared in 1898 in Jisuke Minagawa’s Chabaika Taishu, then at Minagawa Chinka’en Nursery.

Apple Blossom (from Monrovia). The Japanese name is ‘Fukuzutsumi’, meaning “a bag of good fortune”. The clone available in the West was imported in 1891 from Yokohama Nursery by Victorian nurseryman Basil Hodgins and sent to Bill Wylam in California. Clone available from Monrovia Nurseries greatly differs from clone from Nuccio’s Nurseries and Filoli Garden.

Apple Blossom (from Filoli). The Japanese name is ‘Fukuzutsumi’, meaning “a bag of good fortune”. The clone available in the West was imported in 1891 from Yokohama Nursery by Victorian nurseryman Basil Hodgins and sent to Bill Wylam in California. Clone available from Monrovia Nurseries greatly differs from clone from Nuccio’s Nurseries and Filoli Garden.

White double

White Doves. The Japanese name is ‘Mine-no-yuki’ meaning “Snow on the Ridge”. Introduced in 1898.

White Doves. The Japanese name is ‘Mine-no-yuki’ meaning “Snow on the Ridge”. Introduced in 1898.

Little Pearl. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Little Pearl. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Single pinks

Cleopatra. Imported from Japan in 1929. First made available for sale in the United States by Kosaku Sawada in Alabama in 1934.

Cleopatra. Imported from Japan in 1929. First made available for sale in the United States by Kosaku Sawada in Alabama in 1934.

Plantation Pink. Originated by E.G. Waterhouse, New South Wales, Australia in 1948.

Hugh Evans. Originated in Coolidge Rare Garden Plants, California in 1943.

Double pinks

Shishigashira. C. x hiemalis. Means “Lion’s Head” in Japanese. Originated and spread in Kansai and Chubu. First mentioned in Engeikai Zasshi in 1894. Called ‘Kan-tsubaki’ in Kanto area since 1933.

Kanjiro. C. x hiemalis. Introduced by Takii & Co. Ltd., Japan in 1954. Originated in Aichi Prefecture. The original tree was raised in Inazawa City. Sometimes single, sometimes semi-double. Very vigorous, widely used for rootstock.

Jean May. Originated by Ralph May, Gerbing’s Camellia Nursery of Fernandino, Florida in 1951. The flower has a very special shade of light pink.

Jean May. Originated by Ralph May, Gerbing’s Camellia Nursery of Fernandino, Florida in 1951. The flower has a very special shade of light pink.

Semi-formal pinks

Chansonette. Introduced in 1958. A seedling of ‘Shishigashira’.

Enishi. Means “Charming Appearance” in Japanese. It is probably a synonym of 艶姿 (あですがた, Adesugata, “Sexy female body”). Originated in Kumamoto. A seedling of a seed given to Kiyofusa Saito by Shigeru Sugiyama. This cultivar is recognized by Higo Sasanqua Society.

Sarrel. A recent origination from Bobby Green in Fairhope, Alabama. Available from Camellia Forest Nursery, North Carolina. Very spreading, can be kept under 2 feet tall with pruning.

Sarrel. A recent origination from Bobby Green in Fairhope, Alabama. Available from Camellia Forest Nursery, North Carolina. Very spreading, can be kept under 2 feet tall with pruning.

Peony pinks

Showa Supreme. A seedling of ‘Showa-no-sakae’, originated in Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1956.

Showa-no-sakae. C. x hiemalis. The name means “Glory of Showa Era” in Japanese. This cultivar was named after Japanese Emperor Hirohito, whose reign got the title “Showa”, “the era of enlightened peace”. According to Ishii’s Engei Daijiten (1950), Showa-no-Sakae was introduced by Jisuke Minagawa in Saitama in 1937 from a seedling originated in Kansai area (?).

Rosette. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1980.

Rosette. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1980.

Bert Jones. Introduced in 1967

Bert Jones. Introduced in 1967

Anemone pinks

Chojiguruma. Means “a wheel of anemone” in Japanese. Introduced in 1789. Originated in Kansai, spread to many places.

Chojiguruma. Means “a wheel of anemone” in Japanese. Introduced in 1789. Originated in Kansai, spread to many places.

Chojiguruma. Means “a wheel of anemone” in Japanese. Introduced in 1789. Originated in Kansai, spread to many places.

Dark pinks

Bonanza. C. x hiemalis, seedling of ‘Crimson Bride’. Originated by Tom Dodd Jr, Semmes, Alabama in 1962.

Bonanza. C. x hiemalis, seedling of ‘Crimson Bride’. Originated by Tom Dodd Jr, Semmes, Alabama in 1962.

Reverend Ida. A seedling of Shishigashira with deeper and more reddish color. A recent origination from Bobby Green in Fairhope, Alabama. Available from Camellia Forest Nursery, North Carolina.

Reverend Ida. A seedling of Shishigashira with deeper and more reddish color. A recent origination from Bobby Green in Fairhope, Alabama. Available from Camellia Forest Nursery, North Carolina.

Yuletide and Hiryu

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

Hiryu. C. x vernalis. Introduced in Nakayama, Japan in 1847. Originated from Kansai, spread to many places. In Australia it is called ‘Kanjiro’ (the real ‘Kanjiro’ is different). A parent of ‘Yuletide’.

Hiryu. C. x vernalis. Introduced in Nakayama, Japan in 1847. Originated from Kansai, spread to many places. In Australia it is called ‘Kanjiro’ (the real ‘Kanjiro’ is different). A parent of ‘Yuletide’.

Hiryu. C. x vernalis. Introduced in Nakayama, Japan in 1847. Originated from Kansai, spread to many places. In Australia it is called ‘Kanjiro’ (the real ‘Kanjiro’ is different). A parent of ‘Yuletide’.

Bicolor

Navajo. Imported from Japan by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1956. The original name is lost.

Old Glory

Double Rainbow. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Double Rainbow. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Egao group

Egao. C. x vernalis. Name means “smiling face” in Japanese. Originated in Kurume or Fukuoka. Imported to the United States by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in either 1972 or 1977 (?).

Grady’s Egao. C. x vernalis. A sport of Egao.

Oleifera and Ackerman hybrids

C. oleifera. Abel 1818. Southern China, south of Yangtze River, Shanxi and Vietnam. Cultivated for oil production, used for cold-hardy hybrids, grows to 23 ft (7 m) hight, flowers in fall. Chromosome number: 2n = 30, 60, 90 (Kondo, 1977).

Seedling of C. oleifera. Abel 1818. Southern China, south of Yangtze River, Shanxi and Vietnam. Cultivated for oil production, used for cold-hardy hybrids, grows to 23 ft (7 m) hight, flowers in fall.

Winter’s Rose. C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ x C. x hiemalis ‘Otome’. William Ackerman. Survives very low winter temperatures – down to -15 F / -26 C.

Winter’s Rose. C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ x C. x hiemalis ‘Otome’. William Ackerman. Survives very low winter temperatures – down to -15 F / -26 C.

Winter’s Rose. C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ x C. x hiemalis ‘Otome’. William Ackerman. Survives very low winter temperatures – down to -15 F / -26 C.

Winter’s Rose. C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ x C. x hiemalis ‘Otome’. William Ackerman. Survives very low winter temperatures – down to -15 F / -26 C.

Winter’s Rose. C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ x C. x hiemalis ‘Otome’. William Ackerman. Survives very low winter temperatures – down to -15 F / -26 C.

Winter’s Rose. C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ x C. x hiemalis ‘Otome’. William Ackerman. Survives very low winter temperatures – down to -15 F / -26 C.

Other species and hybrids

C. kissii. Wallich 1820. Was callected by botanist named Kiss. Wide range in Southeast Asia – SE China (Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan), Myanmar, Bhutan, northern India, Kampuchea, Laos, Nepal, Sikkim, Thailand and Vietnam. Highly variable, flowers have creamy yellowish tint, flowers in winter.

C. kissii. Wallich 1820. Was callected by botanist named Kiss. Wide range in Southeast Asia – SE China (Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan), Myanmar, Bhutan, northern India, Kampuchea, Laos, Nepal, Sikkim, Thailand and Vietnam. Highly variable, flowers have creamy yellowish tint, flowers in winter.

C. kissii. Wallich 1820. Was callected by botanist named Kiss. Wide range in Southeast Asia – SE China (Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan), Myanmar, Bhutan, northern India, Kampuchea, Laos, Nepal, Sikkim, Thailand and Vietnam. Highly variable, flowers have creamy yellowish tint, flowers in winter.

Buttermint. A hybrid of C. kissii. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1997. Keeps creamy yellowish tint, inherited from C. kissii parent.

C. grijsii. Hance 1879. Was collected in 1861 in Fujian by C.F.M. de Grijs. Distributed in China: Fujian, Hubei, Sichuan, Guangxi. Tidy upright bushes, impressed veins, related to C. yuhsienensis that has larger flowers, there is a double form called ‘Zhenzhu Cha’. Grows to 11 ft (3 m) high, flowers winter to spring. C. yuhsienensis. Hu 1965. Discovered on the mountain Yuh Shan (You Xian) in Hunan in 1960s. Distributed in China: Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Guangdong. Best quality oil of any species, grows to 11 ft (3 m) high, flowers winter to spring, parent of ‘Yume’. Chromosome numbers: 2n = 30, 45, 75 and 90 (Gu, et al., 1988; Kondo, 1990; Xiao, et al., 1991).

Yume. C. x hiemalis ‘Shishigashira’ x C. yuhsienensis. The name means “Dream” in Japanese. The flower has a very unusual alternation of white and pink petals. Originated in Japan.

Yume. C. x hiemalis ‘Shishigashira’ x C. yuhsienensis. The name means “Dream” in Japanese. The flower has a very unusual alternation of white and pink petals. Originated in Japan.

C. puniceiflora. Chang 1981. Distributed in China: Zhejiang, Hunan. Small leaves, grows up to 2 m (6 f) high.

C. puniceiflora. Chang 1981. Distributed in China: Zhejiang, Hunan. Small leaves, grows up to 2 m (6 f) high.

C. puniceiflora. Chang 1981. Distributed in China: Zhejiang, Hunan. Small leaves, grows up to 2 m (6 f) high.

C. puniceiflora. Chang 1981. Distributed in China: Zhejiang, Hunan. Small leaves, grows up to 2 m (6 f) high.

C. puniceiflora. Chang 1981. Distributed in China: Zhejiang, Hunan. Small leaves, grows up to 2 m (6 f) high.

C. brevistyla form. rubida. C. brevistyla (Hay.) Cohen Stuart (1916) form. rubida P. L. Chiu (1987). Distributed in China in hilly areas of Longquan in Zhejiang Province. Chromosome number: 2n = 30 (Kondo, 1977).

C. brevistyla form. rubida. C. brevistyla (Hay.) Cohen Stuart (1916) form. rubida P. L. Chiu (1987). Distributed in China in hilly areas of Longquan in Zhejiang Province. Chromosome number: 2n = 30 (Kondo, 1977).

Gingetsu Perkins. A misnamed cultivar, sent to Nuccio’s Nurseries, California. Possibly a sasanqua-reticulata hybrid.

Gingetsu Perkins. A misnamed cultivar, sent to Nuccio’s Nurseries, California. Possibly a sasanqua-reticulata hybrid.

Gingetsu Perkins. A misnamed cultivar, sent to Nuccio’s Nurseries, California. Possibly a sasanqua-reticulata hybrid.

Kai Mei’s Choice. C. sasanqua x (C. sasanqua x C. reticulata). Originated in Camellia Forest Nursery, North Carolina.

Stars’N'Stripes. A chance seedling of ‘Christmas Rose’ (Williams’ Lavender x Shishigashira). Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Stars’N'Stripes. A chance seedling of ‘Christmas Rose’ (Williams’ Lavender x Shishigashira). Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Stars’N'Stripes. A chance seedling of ‘Christmas Rose’ (Williams’ Lavender x Shishigashira). Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Stars’N'Stripes. A chance seedling of ‘Christmas Rose’ (Williams’ Lavender x Shishigashira). Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Low growing and small foliage

Dwarf Shishi. A seedling of ‘Shishigashira’. Originated by Toichi Domoto, California in 1988.

Dwarf Shishi. A seedling of ‘Shishigashira’. Originated by Toichi Domoto, California in 1988.

Jewel Box

Jewel Box

Twinkle, Twinkle. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Sasanqua Compacta. Very short leaf internodes. From Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Sasanqua Compacta. Very short leaf internodes. From Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Slim’N'Trim. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Slim’N'Trim. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Starry Pillar (N#9820). A chance seedling, might be a sasanqua-tenuiflora hybrid. Columnar habit. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries.

Starry Pillar (N#9820). A chance seedling, might be a sasanqua-tenuiflora hybrid. Columnar habit. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries.

Tanya. Introduced by Coolidge Rare Plants, east Pasadena, California in 1937. Produced from a seed imported from Japan in 1927.

Tanya. Introduced by Coolidge Rare Plants, east Pasadena, California in 1937. Produced from a seed imported from Japan in 1927.

Foliage

Silverado. Light gray green small leaves. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Сазанка – Цветок Осеннего Солнца

“Сазанка” (Sazanka) – японское название цветущего деревца камелии Camellia sasanqua и двух родственных гибридных видов камелий – C. x hiemalis и C. x vernalis. По английски сазанка называется Sasanqua, “Сасанква”. По-японски слово “сазанка” записывается тремя иероглифами 山茶花, которые обозначают “гора”, “чай” и “цветок”, вместе “красивоцветущий горный чай”. А по китайски сазанка называется “ча-маи” и записывается двумя иероглифами 茶梅, обозначающими “красивый (красивоцветущий) чай”. На нашем вебсайте мы называем сазанку “Цветком Осеннего Солнца”, так как она цветет с сентября по январь и любит солнечное место в саду.

Мы создали этот вебсайт для любителей сазанок, цветоводов, селекцинеров и ученых, заинтересованных в обмене информации о ботанике и агротехнике этого замечательного растения.

Camellia sasanqua ‘White Doves’. По-английски этот культивар называется ‘White Doves’ (“Белые Голуби”), а по-японски ‘Mine-no-yuki’ (“Снег на гребне горы’)

Связь между сазанкой и чаем в японском и китайском языках неслучайна. Род камелий (Camellia) широко известен из-за чайного куста (камелии китайской – Camellia sinensis), из листьев которого мы приготовляем чай, и декоративного деревца камелии японской (Camellia japonica). Несмотря на принадлежность к одному роду, сазанка почти не скрещивается с ними и с точки зрения агротехники должна рассматриваться как отдельное растение.

Camellia sinensis, чайный куст, из листьев которого приготовляется чай, который мы пьем

Сестра сазанки, камелия японская (Camellia japonica, японцы называют ее “тсубаки”) – это зимне-цветущее растение с эффектными большими цветками, хорошо подходящими для выставок срезанных цветов и букетов. Камелия японская (“японика”) любит тень и в саду должна рости вместе с другими тенелюбивыми растениями, например папоротниками и азалиями.

Camellia japonica ‘Glen 40′ (‘Coquettii’)

В отличие от японики, цветки сазанки более нежные, иногда с тонким чайным запахом. Цветки сазанки не очень подходят для срезки, так как их лепестки опадают быстрее, чем лепестки японики. Зато многие сазанки производит гораздо больше цветков, чем японики, и осенью, во время цветения сазанок их кусты и деревца производят огромное впечатление в саду. В отличие от тенелюбивой японики, сазанка любит солнце и в саду может выращиваться рядом с розами. Розы и сазанки дополняют друг друга, так как розы цветут весной и летом, а сазанки цветут с ранней осени до середины зимы.

Близкой родственницей сазанки является масляная камелия, олифера (Camellia oleifera), которая используется для производства чайного масла, которое широко применяется вместо подсолнечного в южном Китае и как ингридиент для косметики. Олифера легко скрещивается как с сазанкой, как и с другими родственными видами – C. miyagii, C. kissii, C. brevistyla и другими. Американский селекционер Вильям Акерман, скрещивая сазанку и олиферу, создал так называемые “Акермановские гибриды” – камелии, способные выдерживать морозы до -20 градусов Цельсия и потому потенциально привлекательные для многих регионов России.

Сеянец дикорастущей Camellia oleifera

Акермановский гибрид Winter’s Rose, “Зимняя Роза”. C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ x C. x hiemalis ‘Otome’. Выдерживает очень низкие зимние температуры, согласно Вильяму Акерману, до -26 градусов по Цельсию.

Существует пять главных групп культиваров сазанки – “настоящая” C. sasanqua, C. x hiemalis, C. x vernalis, группа гибридов с общим названием ‘Egao’, и морозоустойчивые акермановские гибриды.

По-видимому, C. x hiemalis и C. x vernalis возникли от скрещивания каких-то древних естественных гибридов сазанки и японики обратно с сазанкой. К C. x hiemalis относятся популярные махровые и пеоновидные культивары ‘Shishigashira’, ‘Showa-no-sakae’ и ‘Kanjiro’. К C. x vernalis относится единственная сазанка настоящего красного цвета ‘Yuletide’ (все другие “красные” сазанки на самом деле темно-розовые). ‘Yuletide’ возник в Калифорнии как случайный сеянец популярного в Австралии культивара ‘Hiryu’ (австралийцы неправильно называют его ‘Kanjiro’).

Camellia x hiemalis ‘Shishigashira’. По японски “шишигашира” означает “львиная голова”.

Многие книги включают в сазанки культивар ‘Egao’ (яп. “Улыбка”) и родственные ему культивары (‘Shibori-Egao’, ‘Egao Corkscrew’, ‘Grady’s Egao’). Вместе с тем, генетические исследования показали, что ‘Egao’ является сложным кроссом гибридов японики и сазанки обратно с японикой. Внешний вид ‘Egao’, егу чувствительность к солнцу, размер и текстура, а также сезон цветения – находятся посередине между сазанкой и японикой.

Camellia x vernalis ‘Egao’. “Эгао” означает по японски “улыбающееся лицо”, причем с хитрой или слегка ехидной улыбкой.

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Камелия – капризна? Вовсе нет!

Юрий Панчул, Май 2005, Октябрь 2007

Читая информацию о камелиях в российской литературе и на российском интернете, я постоянно натыкаюсь на довольно странное мнение, что камелия – это очень капризное растение, которое могут выращивать только виртуозы. С другой стороны, когда я разговаривал с китайским цветоводом в клубе бонзаистов в Пало-Альто, Калифорния, я услышал прямо противоположное мнение: «Камелия? Ох, ну это такое растение, которое просто невозможно убить. Его не поливаешь, поливаешь чрезмерно, не удобряешь – оно себе растет и цветет.»
Continue reading ‘Камелия – капризна? Вовсе нет!’

Контейнерные смеси в Англии и США

Юрий Панчул, 2005-2007

Когда люди начали выращивать растения в горшках, то они быстро обнаружили, что обыкновенная садовая почва не является для этого наилучшим субстратом.

Садовая почва слишком тяжела для горшка и не обеспечивает правильный дренаж и аэрацию. Это приводит к переувлажнению и гибели растения от недостатка кислорода в почве и от гниения корней.

Поэтому в течение столетий растениеводы использовали смеси для горшков, включающие торф, песок, листовую почву, компосты и другие ингредиенты.
Continue reading ‘Контейнерные смеси в Англии и США’

Использование органических удобрений в США

Юрий Панчул, Март 2004, Июнь 2006

Органическое садоводство

В последние годы во многих странах мира стало популярным так называемое «Органическое садоводство» (Organic Gardening). Это методика выращивания растений с минимальным применением искусственных химических удобрений и пестицидов. Несмотря на то, что с точки зрения автора, органическое садоводство не является панацеей, многие из предлагаемых методов получили подтверждение со стороны агрономической науки и почвоведения и могут быть взяты на вооружение цветоводом.
Continue reading ‘Использование органических удобрений в США’

Sasanqua breeders

Well-known sasanqua breeders include:

1. Nuccio’s Nurseries’s founders Joseph and Julius Nuccio, and their children Tom, Jim, and Julius, all living in Southern California. The best-known Nuccio’s sasanqua cultivar is Yuletide – the only really red sasanqua. We wrote an article about their operation and maintain a list of sasanqua cultivars and Camellia species available from Nuccio’s.

2. Dr. William L. Ackerman studied genetics of camellias since 1960s and created cold-tolerant cultivars using Camellia oleifera as a parent. Our favorite Ackerman’s hybrid is ‘Winter’s Rose’ – a beautiful formal pink miniature sasanqua. Dr. Ackerman lives in Maryland, pictures of some of his cultivars are available on the website of a local Camellia Society of the Potomac Valley and on the website of the National Arboretum. We also prepared a photo album of some of his cultivars based on pictures Dr.Ackerman donated to us for publication.

3. Camellia Forest Nursery, Clifford Parks, David Parks and Kai Mei created sasanqua-reticulata hybrids, including ‘Kai Mei’s Choice’. Clifford Parks wrote many articles about Camellia genetics. They are located in North Carolina.

4. Paradise Plants, John Robb created beautiful sasanqua cultivars in Australia, including Paradise Sayaka
and dwarf Paradise Baby Jane. Unfortunately Paradise Camellias are not available in the United States at this moment, but will be available soon via Ball Seed Company, the contact name is Peter Kruger.

5. Tom Dodd Nurseries, Inc was started in 1920 with 40 acres of land by Tom Dodd, Sr. The nursery remained owned by the Dodd family until August of 2004 when it was purchased by Jack Williams and John Williams, owners of Twin Oaks Nursery in Wilmer, AL. Tom Dodd Nurseries introduced a dozen of new sasanqua cultivars.

Nuccio’s Nurseries

Disclaimer: This is not an official Nuccio’s Nurseries web site. Their web site is www.nucciosnurseries.com We are friends of Nuccio’s Nursery but do not represent their business. If you have any questions to Nuccio’s Nurseries, please contact Tom, Jim or Julius at (626) 794-3383

Nuccio’s Nurseries, Inc.
3555 Chaney Trail
Altadena, California 91001

Tel: (626) 794-3383
Fax: (626) 794-3395

Tom Nuccio, Jim Nuccio and Elizabeth Panchul. Nuccio's Nurseries, Altadena, California, December 13, 2003.

Overview

Nuccio’s Nurseries is a medium-size family-owned wholesale and retail nursery specializing in growing and hybridizing Camellias and Azaleas. Nuccio’s is well known as one of the richest Camellia nursery in the United States in terms of number of cultivars and species available for sale – more then 600. Nuccio’s family is one of the most recognized sources of Camellia and Azalea introductions worldwide.

History

Nuccio’s Nurseries started as a backyard operation in Alhambra, California by two brothers, Joseph and Julius Nuccio, who obtained a nursery license from the State of California back in 1935.

In 1946 the brother’s father, Giulio Nuccio, bought 40 acres of land in Altadena, north of Pasadena. This is the current location of 6 acres large Nuccio’s Nurseries that is now managed by Julius’ and Joseph’s children – cousin Julius and brothers Tom and Jim. Nuccio’s has total of 13 people – 3 owners and 10 workers.

Nuccio's Nurseries, Altadena, California, December 19, 2005.

Facilities

Nuccio’s has five greenhouses 11×57 feet, one greenhouse 12×60, one greenhouse 9×45 feet and one small glass greenhouse. Four of 11×57 greenhouses and one 9×45 greenhouse have misting systems and are used primarily for cuttings. During the winter they are used for grafting. One 11×57 greenhouse and 12×60 are used for grafting.

Most of plants are grown under large 50% shade cloth. An exception is Camellia sasanqua that can be grown in full sun. Nuccio’s uses manual irrigation for adult plants and misting system for cuttings.

Growing Camellias from cuttings

Cuttings are collected during the beginning of summer (end of June, beginning of July) and put into 50% peat moss 50% perlite in greenhouses under misting systems. Cuttings usually root in 3 months.

After 2-4 more months rooted cuttings are transplanted into 2-inch pots and stay there for 6-9 months. Plants in 2-inch pots should be watered every 3-4 days depending on weather. The potting mix used is 3/2/1 peat moss/topsoil/perlite.

Then young plants are transplanted into 4-inch pots and stay there for another 6 months to a year. Sometimes young plants are moved directly into #1 containers.

Then plants are transplanted into #1 containers and stay there for 2-3 years. At that moment they are available for sale.

Some of plants are transplanted into #5 containers and stay there for another 2-3 years. Tom Nuccio recommends for hobby growers to transplant from #1 to #2 containers before transplanting to #5. Some of the slow growing sasanquas, like Shishi-Gashira, are transplanted from #2 containers to #3 containers.

Plant fertilization schedule is every 6-8 weeks from April through September using Cottonseed Meal, chemical fertilizer Pete Light 20-10-20 or Fish Fertilizer. Convenient fertilization dates to remember are Easter, 4th of July and Labor Day.

Nuccio's Nurseries, Altadena, California, December 19, 2005.

Hybridizing and growing Camellia seedlings

Nuccio’s uses mostly open pollinations with some hand pollinations. Camellia fruits ripen in September-October. After fruit breaks, seeds are immediately collected and sown into large #3 containers filled with a soil mix that consists of 50/50 peat moss and sand. Seeds germinate after 6-8 weeks but they don’t come out of the soil until March. They develop very long taproots that must be cut during the first transplantation. Otherwise plants will not be able to grow normally in containers.

Seedlings are transplanted 1 year after sewing into 3 or 4-inch pots and treated just like young plants grown from cuttings.

During its history Nuccio’s introduced over 130 camellia cultivars and over 150 azalea cultivars.

Pest and disease management

Nuccio’s uses Integrated Pest Management. They spray only as needed and use a lot of beneficial insects to control pests. Nuccio’s uses Trichogramma Wasps against larva of moths and caterpillars, Ladybugs against Aphids and Lacewings against soft-bodied insects. Camellia spider mites are controlled using ultra fine oil spray; Hexagon is used to kill eggs of spider mites. Other insecticides and miticides used only on as-needed basis include Talstar, Floramite and Avid.

Sales

Nuccio’s has both wholesale and retail sales. The volume of wholesale is somewhat more than the volume of retail. Most of retail sales happen in the nursery rather then through mail order. Nuccio’s ship internationally. Nuccio’s has many cultivars not available in large-volume nurseries. Many Camellia societies order from Nuccio’s for their annual show sales events.

We maintain a list of sasanqua cultivars and Camellia species available from Nuccio’s.

Tom Nuccio. Nuccio's Nurseries, Altadena, California, December 13, 2003.

Nuccio’s Nurseries Catalog

Disclaimer: This is not an official Nuccio’s Nurseries web site. Their web site is www.nucciosnurseries.com We are friends of Nuccio’s Nursery but do not represent their business. If you have any questions to Nuccio’s Nurseries, please contact Tom, Jim or Julius at (626) 794-3383

Nuccio’s Nurseries, Inc.
3555 Chaney Trail
Altadena, California 91001

Tel: (626) 794-3383
Fax: (626) 794-3395

Tom Nuccio and Elizabeth Panchul. Nuccio's Nurseries, Altadena, California, December 13, 2003.

Varieties tending to peak later are designated by “L”;
Varieties showing earlier color are indicated by “E”.
Nuccio’s Nurseries introductions are indicated by “N”.

Name Description Bloom N
Apple Blossom White, blush pink at edge. Single.        
Asakura Large double. Pink buds opening white.
Vigorous, upright grows.
E      
Autumn Dawn Medium, loose peony. White toned deeper pink edge.
Medium, upright, slightly loose growth habit.
E     N
Betty Patricia Large rose form. Shell pink.        
Bert Jones Silvery pink semi-double. Flower quite large.     L  
Blush Rosette Sport of Rosette. Very light blush pink.     L N
Bonanza Deep red. Large, semi-peony form. Medium, low growth. E      
Brooksie Anderson Small double, light orchid pink. Slow, compact growth.     L  
Chansonette Unusual lavender pink. Irregular formal double. Low growing.        
Choji Guruma Anemone. Light pink, toning deeper toward edged of both petals and petaloids.        
Cleopatra Rose pink. Single.        
Dawn Semi-double. White tipped blush pink.     L  
Dazzler Brilliant rose red. Semi-double. E     N
December Rose Seedling of Egao. Large, semi-double, rose pink. Vigorous, upright, spreading growth.     L N
Double Rainbow Semi-double white bordered rose. Medium upright growth.       N
Egao Large, semi-double. Pink. Vigorous upright, somewhat spreading growth.More than likely a Sasanqua-Japonica hybrid.     L  
French Vanilla Large creamy white single. Fast, upright, somewhat open growth.       N
Frosted Star Small semi-double. Narrow petals. White toned light pink. Narrow leaves. Medium, bushy, upright, somewhat spreading growth.        
Grady’s Egao (Grady Perigan) Sport of Egao. Light pink, veined, fine white edge. Flower is smaller than parent’s and growth is more compact.     L  
Hana Jiman Large single white, edged with pink.        
Himekoki Clear pink. Small rose form. Pointed petals. Profuse. Medium, upright, slightly spreading growth habit.        
Hiryu Deep red. Double.        
Hugh Evans Profuse bloomer. Single pink.        
Hugh Evans Blush Very light blush pink, almost white, sport of Hugh Evans. Medium, upright, somewhat lacy growth habit.
Occasional yellow mottling on foliage. Profuse.
       
Interlude Light orchid pink. Formal double.     L  
Jean May Shell pink, double blossoms.        
Kanjiro (Australian Hiryu) Brilliant rose red, semi-double.        
Ko-Gyoko (Little Gem) Formal double, white with edges of petals pink.     L  
Little Pearl Medium, irregular semi-double, pink buds opening to white edged pink. Compact, upright growth.     L N
Miss Ed Blush pink. Formal to rose form. Narrow columnar growth.        
Misty Moon Pale, light lavender pink. Single to semi-double. Large, round flower with wavy petals. Upright, bushy growth.       N
Momozono Nishiki Single, white bordered rose red. E      
Narumigata Single white edged with pink.        
Navajo Semi-double, brilliant rose red fading to white in center.        
Nodami Ushiro Large, deep pink, semi-double.        
Painted Desert (N#9223) Large, single. Pale pink to near white,
bordered deep rose red. Showy stamens. Slow, upright, compact, stout growth.
       
Pale Moonlight Pale orchid pink toned lighter toward center.
Some petals rabbit eared. Growth very willowy and cascading.
       
Pink Snow Light pink, semi-double to loose peony.        
Pink Showers Large semi-double pink. Low, cascading growth.        
Rainbow Large, single white with red border.        
Rosette Small rose pink. Rose form to loose peony. Growth is upright and spreading.       N
Sakura Tsukiyo Large soft pink single. Growth is rather vigorous,
upright, but somewhat pendulous.
       
Setsugekka Large semi-double white with ruffled petals.        
Shibori Egao Variegated form of Egao. Pink mottled white. Very showy.     L  
Shinonome Very large, soft pink. Single to semi-double.        
Shishi Gashira Double, bright rose red. Low, compact growth.        
Showa-No-Sakae Semi-double to peony. Soft clear pink. Vigorous, low growth. E      
Showa Supreme Peony, soft clear pink. Low growth.       N
Silver Dollar Medium peony, white. Compact, mounding, medium growth.       N
Slim ‘N Trim Single, deep rose pink. Medium, very tight bushy,
columnar growth habit. Excellent for areas of limited width.
      N
Snowfall Large single white. Very vigorous, upright, somewhat open growth.
(We suspect this chance seedling to be a Sasanqua-Oleifera Hybrid.)
      N
Snowflake Large, single white        
Star Above Star White shading to lavender pink at edge. Medium semi-double.     L  
Stars ‘N Stripes
Single, white striped rose red, often with a rose red border.
Because striped Sasanquas are rare, this variety is a unique beauty.
Profuse and showy. Medium, upright, spreading growth. Being a chance
seedling of “Christmas Rose” (Williams’ Lavender x Shishi Gashira),
this is technically a hybrid, but we list it here because its overall
appearance is entirely “Sasanqua” – blooming season, flower type, leaf size
and sun tolerance.
      N
Taishuhai Large, single to semi-double. Deep rose border
to off-white center. Fast and upright but very graceful and lacy.
       
Takarazuka (Very possibly a Sasanqua-Japonica hybrid).
Medium to large semi-double, light pink toned deeper.
Very vigorous, upright and spreading growth.
    L  
Tanya Deep rose pink. Single. Fairly low growth.        
Twinkle, Twinkle (N#8929) This is a beautiful dwarf sasanqua
with very bushy, compact growth. Very small, semi-double, white,
sometime tinted pink, with small pointed petals.
      N
White Cleopatra White sport of Cleopatra.        
White Doves (Mine-No-Yuki) White, semi-double. Low growth.        
White Frills White, semi-double. Moderately low growth        
Yae Arare Large, single white with petals edged pink.        
Yuletide Brilliant orange red single with bright yellow
stamens. Sturdy, compact, upright growth.
    L N

A new small-leaved cultivar from Nuccio’s Nurseries – ‘Starry Pillar’


Starry Pillar

By foliage this cultivar is similar to ‘Jewel Box’ and ‘Twinkle, Twinkle’. The habit is columnar and resembles ‘Slim’N'Trim’ and C. grijsii. The flower resembles C. grigsii species. A description from 2006-2007 Nuccio’s catalog:

STARRY PILLAR (N#9820) – Small single white, occasional tint of pink on edge and on bud. Small dark green foliage. Medium growing, columnar habit. (There are several features of this chance seedling that lead us to believe it may well be a Sasanqua-Tenuiflora hybrid.)
Continue reading ‘A new small-leaved cultivar from Nuccio’s Nurseries – ‘Starry Pillar’’

The Fall Meeting at Filoli Garden in California

Organized by the American Camellia Society

Presentations:

John Wang. Bark Grafting.
John Wang. My Thoughts and Discipline on Camellia Breeding.
Gene Phillips. The Importance of Tea in our Gardens.

Demonstrations:

Clayton Mathis. Techniques of Rooting Cuttings and Air Layering Camellias.
Tom Nuccio. Techniques of Rooting Cuttings and Grafting.
John Wang. Bark Grafting Techniques from China and Taiwan.

Displays:

Neiman Marcus, Amorepacific beauty products made with Camellias
Megiston Health Foods, Madeline Lee, Organic tea oils made with Camellias

John Wang:

John Wang, Filoli Garden, California, September 8, 2007

Gene Phillips:

Gene Phillips, Filoli Garden, California, September 8, 2007

Tom Nuccio:

Tom Nuccio, Filoli Garden, California, September 8, 2007

Continue reading ‘The Fall Meeting at Filoli Garden in California’

A book from the Japanese Camellia Society ‘The Nomenclature of Japanese Camellias and Sasanquas’


'The Nomenclature of Japanese Camellias and Sasanquas'. The Japanese Camellia Society.

“The Nomenclature of Japanese Camellias and Sasanquas” ( 日本ツバキ・サザンカ名鑑 , Nippon Tsubaki ・ Sasanqua Meikan) is another “must have” book for any serious sasanqua lover. This book was published in 1999 by the Japanese Camellia Society ( 日本ツバキ協会編 , Nippon Tsubaki Kyoukai Hen) and Seibundo Shinkosha Co. Ltd. ( 誠文堂 新光社 ). This book is a work of more than 50 people who collected high-quality photo pictures and information on more than 2200 japonica and 200 sasanqua cultivars.

The book consists of two volumes – a volume in Japanese with pictures and a volume with English translation, created under the supervision of Thomas J. Savige. Note that in the book “The Japanese Camellia Society” is referred as “The Japan Camellia Society”.

The book has a short preface (4 pages), telling the history of the Japanese Camellia Society and the history of the book publication.

The Japanese Camellia Society was formed after the WWII, shortly after the formation of the International Camellia Society in 1953. It was the time of worldwide surge of interest in camellia growing and hybridizing.

The first nomenclature publication “Japanese Camellias, a Collection of 1000 varieties” ( 日本の椿、千品種 , Nippon no tsubaki, Senhin-shu) was published in 1980, but it included only Camellia japonica ( 椿, tsubaki ) and had no infomation about sasanqua ( 山茶花 , sazanka).

After the International Camellia Society published a monumental International Camellia Register in 1993 with 22,000 cultivars, it became obvious that the Japanese nomenclature publication has to be updated. However, according to the Japanese Camellia Society, during the economic boom time, no Japanese publisher wanted to publish a camellia book, because of its low profitability – there were plenty of more profitable books around. So Japanese camellia lovers had to wait until the economy goes down!

After the preface, the book presents information about 2400 cultivars. Each cultivar’s information has a photo picture and a 100-Kanji description. Some cultivars have no photo pictures – they are described in the appendix. The description is brief and very informative – it describes the cultivar’s area of origin, color, shape, habit, name of the originator and first mention in the literature. I wish similar American publications (like Southern California Camellia Society) use the same style.

Finally, after more than 300 pages of cultivars, the book has a chapter about the camellia history (3 pages), an afterword (1 page), a translator’s note (1 page) and an index. I personally like this style because it is down to the point.

The chapter about camellia history is written by the President of the Japanese Camellia Society Dr. Kaoru Hagiya ( 薫屋薫 ). It contains an interesting thought about why Japanese people prefer single flowers while Westerners prefer double formal flowers: ”The fundamental difference is in that the Westerners treat flowers as kinds of decorations, while Japanese take flowers as the symbols of nature”.

The afterword is written by Shuho Kirino ( 桐野秋豊 ), a member of the editorial committee.

There is a translator’s note from Shigeo Matsumoto ( 松本重雄 ) who is asking forgiveness for his translation errors. I did find some ambiguities – for example, about the origin of ‘Shôwa-no-sakae’. However I personally like his style of translation because it has a feeling of the Japanese character. If the translator would be non-Japanese, the text would be less authentic.

Shigeo Matsumoto was using help from Thomas J. Savige from Australia who suggested to use Hepburn system in the translation according to the International Nomenclature Code. This is very important. Different books use different forms of English transliteration of Japanese names. For example ‘Shôwa-no-sakae’ is written as ‘Showa No Sakae’, or ‘Shishigashira’ is written as ‘Shishi Gashira’ or ‘Shishi Gashira’. It is important to understand that pronouncing “o” instead of “ô” may change the meaning of the word. However we are still using non-accented “o” on our www.sazanka.org web site because of English search engines. But the bottom line – “The Nomenclature of Japanese Camellias and Sasanquas” became for me the main reference for the proper name, pronunciation and the history of Japanese sasanqua cultivars.

A classic 1958 book by J. Robert Sealy ‘A Revision of the Genus Camellia’


J. Robert Sealy 'A Revision of the Genus Camellia'

J. Robert Sealy 'A Revision of the Genus Camellia'

Happy blooming New Year!

Today the newspaper San Francisco Chronicle published my photo picture of the Camellia hybrid ‘Yuletide’. The photo appeared in as an illustration to an article written by Demetra Bowles Lathrop. The name of the article is “Happy blooming New Year! Camellias, hellebores, winter hazel can brighten desolate Bay Area gardens” and it appeared in the gardening section.

You can get the article from the newspaper’s website: http://tinyurl.com/6clpca

Сегодня, 10-го января, газета Сан-Франциско Кроникл напечатала мою фотографии камелии ‘Юлетайд’. Фотография иллюстрирует статью журналистки Деми Латроп про растения, цветущие в области Сан-Францисского залива во время Нового Года.

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.
Continue reading ‘Happy blooming New Year!’

This beauty shows its colors early

A couple of week ago I got a call from journalist Lili Singer, who needed some information about Camellia sasanqua for her article in Los Angeles Times. Today this article was published. You can see my sasanqua cultivar recommendations in the article.

Dwarf Shishi. A seedling of ‘Shishigashira’. Originated by Toichi Domoto, California in 1988.

You can get the article from LA Times archive: http://tinyurl.com/64cyo7

Continue reading ‘This beauty shows its colors early’

Camellia sasanqua botany (with pictures)

Camellia sasanqua botany (with pictures)

Yuri Panchul, June 2003


Camellia sasanqua ‘Shikoku Stars’. A wild variety.


Camellia miyagii

Contents


Camellia puniceiflora


Camellia brevistyla var. rubida

Taxonomy

There are three most recent classification systems of the genus Camellia frequently referred in Camellia literature: Sealy 1958 [4], Chang 1981 [1] and Ming 2000 [3].

Taxonomy – Sealy

J. Robert Sealy divided genus Camellia into 12 species group (sections). He put C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi into section Paracamellia, C. hiemalis and C. miyagii into unplaced (artificial) section Dubiae.

Sealy’s Paracamellia consisted of ten species. Their main feature was short styles and minimal fusion of floral parts.

In 1971 Dr. William L. Ackerman shown in his article [5] that C. hiemalis and C. miyagii freely hybridize with species of section Paracamellia and suggested they should be in one section.

Taxonomy – Chang

Chang Hung Ta (1981, [1]) divided genus Camellia into four subgenera and 20 sections. He put C. sasanqua and C. oleifera into section Oleifera of Camellia subgenus. Then he put C. kissi and C. miyagii into section Paracamellia of the same subgenus and C. hiemalis into section Camellia subsection Reticulata of the same genus.

We believe later Chang Hung Ta corrected C. hiemalis classification and put it back into section Paracamellia.

Chang stated that the reason five species should be put into a separate Oleifera section is because they have more stamen series and relatively longer styles. Xiao Tiaojiang and Clifford Parks (2002, [10]) doubted Chang’s reasons for dividing Paracamellia into two sections (Paracamellia and Oleifera). They noticed that wild forms of C. sasanqua (Changs’s section Oleifera) and C. miyagii (Chang’s section Paracamellia) are virtually identical and can be considered a one species. They also did DNA sequence analysis and found all species of Changs’s Oleifera section to be clustered with a group of species in Paracamellia section.

Xiao Tiaojiang and Clifford Parks also shown by DNA analysis that some of Chang’s Paracamellia species may be in fact not belonging to Paracamellia section, for example C. grijsii, C. odorata and C. yusienensis. They fall into the clade of section Camellia species from Western China.

Taxonomy – Ming

Ming Tianlu (2000, [3]) divided genus Camellia into two subgenera and 14 sections. We do not have his book so we cannot describe his treatment of Paracamellia species. Neither Sealy nor Chang recognized C. vernalis to be a separate species. In fact, many researchers consider C. vernalis to be a complicated sasanqua-japonica hybrid (see the details below). Some researches also consider C. hiemalis a sasanqua-japonica hybrid.

According to William Ackerman, when he traveled in 1980 on a plant exploration trip to western Japan, he saw wild populations of both C. sasanqua and C. japonica growing adjacent to each other, and intermingled. There were also obvious hybrids showing intermediate phenotypic characteristics. Ackerman’s cytological analysis of a series of C. vernalis cultivars showed chromosomal evidence of both 1st and 2nd generation hybridization.

On the other hand, Ackerman strongly disagree with those who consider C. hiemalis a hybrid with C. japonica parentage. He does not see neither cytological nor phenotypical evidence to support this.


Camellia x vernalis ‘Hiryu’. A parent of ‘Yuletide’.


Camellia x vernalis ‘Yuletide’. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

Species

Species by Chang Hung Ta classification

Section Oleifera Chang

C. gauchowensis Chang (1961)
C. lanceoleosa
C. oleifera Abel (1818)
C. sasanqua Thunb. (1784)
C. vietnamensis Hung ex Hu (1965)

Section Paracamellia Sealy

C. brevistyla (Hay.) Cohen-Stuart (1908)
C. confusa (Craib) Cohen-Stuart (1916)
C. fluviatilis Hand.-Mazz. (1922). (Synonim C. kissi)
C. grijsii Hance (1879)
C. hiemalis Nakai (1940)
C. maliflolia Lindl. (1827)
C. microphylla (Merr.) Chien (1937)
C. miyagii (Koidz.) Mak. & Nem. (1931)
C. obtusifolia Chang (1981)
C. odorata
C. phaeoclada Chang (1981)
C. puniceiflora Chang (1981)
C. shensiensis Chang ex Chang (1981)
C. tenii Sealy (1949)
C. weiningensis Y.K. Li ex Chang (1981)
C. yuhsienensis Hu (1965)

Section Paracamellia Sealy – not in Chang’s list, but from the International Camellia Society website:

C. brevissima Chang & Liang (1982)
C. lutescens Dyer in Hook. (1874)
C. octopetala Hu in Acta Phytotax. Sin. vol.X, No.2, 1965
C. paucipetala Chang, (1984).


Camellia oleifera


Camellia hybrid ‘Winter’s Rose’. C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ x C. x hiemalis ‘Otome’. An Ackerman hybrid.

Compatibility

According to William L. Ackerman (1971, [5]), C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi of Sealy’s section Paracamellia hybridize with each other very readily. In Ackerman’s research the compatibility ratio of hybrids in relation to total cross-polunations was 29 percent, the highest withing any of the section he experimented.

Ackerman also hybridized hiemalis and C. miyagii of Sealy’s section Dubiae (Chang’s section Paracamellia). The compatibility ratio was 19 percent.

Ackerman also found that C. hiemalis and C. miyagii of Sealy’s section Dubiae hybridized as easily as when intrasectional crosses were made within Sealy’s section Paracamellia (C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi). The compatibility ratio was 18 percent for C. miyagii and 13 percent for C. hiemalis.

All these percentage numbers compare with just 9 percent for intrasectional crosses within section Camellia.

Ackerman indicated that C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi are ecospecies. He also suggested C. hiemalis and C. miyagii are ecospecies as well and should be put into Sealy’s section Paracamellia.

In Ackerman’s experiments section Thea appeared to be more closely related to section Paracamellia and to C. hiemalis and C. miyagii of Dubiae than to species of other sections.


Camellia kissii. A parent of ‘Buttermint’.


Camellia hybrid ‘Buttermint’. A seedling of C. kissii. Nuccio’s Nurseries, California, 1997.

Chromosomes

The basic chromosome number in the genus Camellia is 15. Different species have chromosome numbers of 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90. According to Ackerman [5] C. sasanqua, C. hiemalis, C. oleifera and C. miyagii are generally hexaploids (chromosome number 6X=90).

C. kissi is a diploid (2X=30).

C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ is a pentaploid (5X=75)

C. vernalis ‘Hirya’ was reported to be a triploid (3X=45) by Longley and Tourje (1959 [6], 1960 [7]).

Most C. japonica and C. sinensis are diploid (2X=30).

There are rare cases of triploid C. sinensis (3X=45).

The following numbers of chromosomes were reported by Ackerman [5] for crosses:

C. japonica 30 x C. kissi 30 = 30
C. kissi 30 x C. rusticana 30 = 30
             
C. japonica 30 x C. miyagii 90 = 60
             
C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ 75 x C. granthamiana 60 = 60
C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ 75 x C. reticulata 90 = 90
             
C. oleifera 90 x C. hiemalis 90 = 90
C. oleifera 90 x C. miyagii 90 = 90
C. reticulata 90 x C. sasanqua 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. hiemalis 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. miyagii 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. miyagii 90 = 86
C. sasanqua 90 x C. oleifera 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. reticulata 90 = 90

According to Ackerman [5] “‘Narumigata’, a pentaploid variety of C. sasanqua, produced hybrids when used as the female parent. However, the chromosome number of its hybrids seem unpredictable. A hybrid, A-24, resulting from C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ (5X=75) x C. granthamiana (4X=60) was tetraploid (4X=60). The morphological characters of this hybrid were intermediate. It is generally difficult to assess accurately the contribution of each parent to the hybrid in crosses involving polyploid species without the aid of genetical or cytological markers. However, ‘Narumigata’ may have produced an egg with 30 chromosomes, which united with a sperm carrying 30 chromosomes from C. granthamiana. A hybrid of C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ x C. reticulata (6X=90) was hexaploid. In this case, ‘Narumigata’ may have produced an egg cell with 45 chromosomes.”

William Ackerman also reports in his recent correspondence C. vernalis tetraploid (4X=60) and pentaploid (5X=75). This is what one would expect along the following lines, which substantiates the hybrid nature of C. vernalis:

  • 1st Generation (F1) hybrid between C. sasanqua 6X=90 x C. japonica 2X=30 with result in gametes 45 + 15 = 60 chromosomes (4X,tetraploid).
  • Backcross of resulting F1 hybrid to C. sasanqua: F1 hybrid 4X=60 x C. sasanqua 6X=90 will result in gametes 30 + 45 = 75chromosomes (5X, pentaploid).
  • Backcross of resulting F1 hybrid to C. japonica: F1 hybrid 4X=60 x C. japonica 2X=30 will result in gametes 30 + 15 = 45chromosomes (3X, triploid). This triploid will normally be sterile.


Camellia sasanqua ‘Narimugata’. Pentaploid.


Camellia x reticulata hybrid ‘Kai Mei’s Choice’. C. sasanqua x (C. sasanqua x C. reticulata), Camellia Forest Nursery.

Books


[1] Chang Hung Ta. 1981. A taxonomy of the genus Camellia. In Chinese. Acta Scientarum Naturalium Universitatis, Sunyatseni

Chang’s book was revised in 1998 (also in Chinese). English translation of 1981 Chang’s book is available on amazon.com:

[2] Chang Hung Ta, Bruce Bartholomew. 1984. Camellias. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

[3] Ming Tianlu. 2000. Monograph of the genus Camellia. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, P.R. China

[4] J. Robert Sealy. 1958. A Revision of the Genus Camellia. The Royal Horticultural Society, London

It is possible to buy Sealy’s book on the Internet


Camellia x vernalis ‘Egao’. Means “smiling face” in Japanese.

Articles

[5] William L. Ackerman. 1971. Genetic and cytological studies with Camellia and related genera. Washington, D. C.

[6] Longley, A. E., and Tourje, E. C. Chromosome numbers of certain camellia species and allied genera. American Camellia Yearbook. 1959: 33-39.

[7] Longley, A. E., and Tourje, E. C. Chromosome numbers of certain camellia species and allied genera. American Camellia Yearbook. 1960: 70-72.

[8] Clifford Parks, K. Kondo and T.Swain. Phytochemical evidence for the genetic contamination of Camellia sasanqua Thunberg. Japanese Journal of Breeding 31(2):168

[9] John M. Ruter. Nursery production of Tea Oil Camellia under different light levels. Trends in new crops and new uses. 2002. J. Janick and A. Whipkey (eds.). ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.

[10] Xiao Tiaojiang, Clifford Parks. 2002. Molecular analysis of the genus Camellia. University of North Carolina, USA.


Camellia grijsii


Camellia x yuhsienensis hybrid ‘Yume’. C. x hiemalis ‘Shishi Gashira’ x C. yuhsienensis, Dr. Kaoru Hagiya.

Camellia sasanqua botany

Yuri Panchul, June 2003

Contents

Taxonomy

There are three most recent classification systems of the genus Camellia frequently referred in Camellia literature: Sealy 1958 [4], Chang 1981 [1] and Ming 2000 [3].

Taxonomy – Sealy

J. Robert Sealy divided genus Camellia into 12 species group (sections). He put C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi into section Paracamellia, C. hiemalis and C. miyagii into unplaced (artificial) section Dubiae.

Sealy’s Paracamellia consisted of ten species. Their main feature was short styles and minimal fusion of floral parts.

In 1971 Dr. William L. Ackerman shown in his article [5] that C. hiemalis and C. miyagii freely hybridize with species of section Paracamellia and suggested they should be in one section.

Taxonomy – Chang

Chang Hung Ta (1981, [1]) divided genus Camellia into four subgenera and 20 sections. He put C. sasanqua and C. oleifera into section Oleifera of Camellia subgenus. Then he put C. kissi and C. miyagii into section Paracamellia of the same subgenus and C. hiemalis into section Camellia subsection Reticulata of the same genus.

We believe later Chang Hung Ta corrected C. hiemalis classification and put it back into section Paracamellia.

Chang stated that the reason five species should be put into a separate Oleifera section is because they have more stamen series and relatively longer styles. Xiao Tiaojiang and Clifford Parks (2002, [10]) doubted Chang’s reasons for dividing Paracamellia into two sections (Paracamellia and Oleifera). They noticed that wild forms of C. sasanqua (Changs’s section Oleifera) and C. miyagii (Chang’s section Paracamellia) are virtually identical and can be considered a one species. They also did DNA sequence analysis and found all species of Changs’s Oleifera section to be clustered with a group of species in Paracamellia section.

Xiao Tiaojiang and Clifford Parks also shown by DNA analysis that some of Chang’s Paracamellia species may be in fact not belonging to Paracamellia section, for example C. grijsii, C. odorata and C. yusienensis. They fall into the clade of section Camellia species from Western China.

Taxonomy – Ming

Ming Tianlu (2000, [3]) divided genus Camellia into two subgenera and 14 sections. We do not have his book so we cannot describe his treatment of Paracamellia species. Neither Sealy nor Chang recognized C. vernalis to be a separate species. In fact, many researchers consider C. vernalis to be a complicated sasanqua-japonica hybrid (see the details below). Some researches also consider C. hiemalis a sasanqua-japonica hybrid.

According to William Ackerman, when he traveled in 1980 on a plant exploration trip to western Japan, he saw wild populations of both C. sasanqua and C. japonica growing adjacent to each other, and intermingled. There were also obvious hybrids showing intermediate phenotypic characteristics. Ackerman’s cytological analysis of a series of C. vernalis cultivars showed chromosomal evidence of both 1st and 2nd generation hybridization.

On the other hand, Ackerman strongly disagree with those who consider C. hiemalis a hybrid with C. japonica parentage. He does not see neither cytological nor phenotypical evidence to support this.

Species

Species by Chang Hung Ta classification

Section Oleifera Chang

C. gauchowensis Chang (1961)
C. lanceoleosa
C. oleifera Abel (1818)
C. sasanqua Thunb. (1784)
C. vietnamensis Hung ex Hu (1965)

Section Paracamellia Sealy

C. brevistyla (Hay.) Cohen-Stuart (1908)
C. confusa (Craib) Cohen-Stuart (1916)
C. fluviatilis Hand.-Mazz. (1922). (Synonim C. kissi)
C. grijsii Hance (1879)
C. hiemalis Nakai (1940)
C. maliflolia Lindl. (1827)
C. microphylla (Merr.) Chien (1937)
C. miyagii (Koidz.) Mak. & Nem. (1931)
C. obtusifolia Chang (1981)
C. odorata
C. phaeoclada Chang (1981)
C. puniceiflora Chang (1981)
C. shensiensis Chang ex Chang (1981)
C. tenii Sealy (1949)
C. weiningensis Y.K. Li ex Chang (1981)
C. yuhsienensis Hu (1965)

Section Paracamellia Sealy – not in Chang’s list, but from the International Camellia Society website:

C. brevissima Chang & Liang (1982)
C. lutescens Dyer in Hook. (1874)
C. octopetala Hu in Acta Phytotax. Sin. vol.X, No.2, 1965
C. paucipetala Chang, (1984).

Compatibility

According to William L. Ackerman (1971, [5]), C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi of Sealy’s section Paracamellia hybridize with each other very readily. In Ackerman’s research the compatibility ratio of hybrids in relation to total cross-polunations was 29 percent, the highest withing any of the section he experimented.

Ackerman also hybridized hiemalis and C. miyagii of Sealy’s section Dubiae (Chang’s section Paracamellia). The compatibility ratio was 19 percent.

Ackerman also found that C. hiemalis and C. miyagii of Sealy’s section Dubiae hybridized as easily as when intrasectional crosses were made within Sealy’s section Paracamellia (C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi). The compatibility ratio was 18 percent for C. miyagii and 13 percent for C. hiemalis.

All these percentage numbers compare with just 9 percent for intrasectional crosses within section Camellia.

Ackerman indicated that C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi are ecospecies. He also suggested C. hiemalis and C. miyagii are ecospecies as well and should be put into Sealy’s section Paracamellia.

In Ackerman’s experiments section Thea appeared to be more closely related to section Paracamellia and to C. hiemalis and C. miyagii of Dubiae than to species of other sections.

Chromosomes

The basic chromosome number in the genus Camellia is 15. Different species have chromosome numbers of 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90. According to Ackerman [5] C. sasanqua, C. hiemalis, C. oleifera and C. miyagii are generally hexaploids (chromosome number 6X=90).

C. kissi is a diploid (2X=30).

C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ is a pentaploid (5X=75)

C. vernalis ‘Hiryu’ was reported to be a triploid (3X=45) by Longley and Tourje (1959 [6], 1960 [7]).

Most C. japonica and C. sinensis are diploid (2X=30).

There are rare cases of triploid C. sinensis (3X=45).

The following numbers of chromosomes were reported by Ackerman [5] for crosses:

C. japonica 30 x C. kissi 30 = 30
C. kissi 30 x C. rusticana 30 = 30
             
C. japonica 30 x C. miyagii 90 = 60
             
C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ 75 x C. granthamiana 60 = 60
C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ 75 x C. reticulata 90 = 90
             
C. oleifera 90 x C. hiemalis 90 = 90
C. oleifera 90 x C. miyagii 90 = 90
C. reticulata 90 x C. sasanqua 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. hiemalis 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. miyagii 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. miyagii 90 = 86
C. sasanqua 90 x C. oleifera 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. reticulata 90 = 90

According to Ackerman [5] “‘Narumigata’, a pentaploid variety of C. sasanqua, produced hybrids when used as the female parent. However, the chromosome number of its hybrids seem unpredictable. A hybrid, A-24, resulting from C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ (5X=75) x C. granthamiana (4X=60) was tetraploid (4X=60). The morphological characters of this hybrid were intermediate. It is generally difficult to assess accurately the contribution of each parent to the hybrid in crosses involving polyploid species without the aid of genetical or cytological markers. However, ‘Narumigata’ may have produced an egg with 30 chromosomes, which united with a sperm carrying 30 chromosomes from C. granthamiana. A hybrid of C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ x C. reticulata (6X=90) was hexaploid. In this case, ‘Narumigata’ may have produced an egg cell with 45 chromosomes.”

William Ackerman also reports in his recent correspondence C. vernalis tetraploid (4X=60) and pentaploid (5X=75). This is what one would expect along the following lines, which substantiates the hybrid nature of C. vernalis:

  • 1st Generation (F1) hybrid between C. sasanqua 6X=90 x C. japonica 2X=30 with result in gametes 45 + 15 = 60 chromosomes (4X,tetraploid).
  • Backcross of resulting F1 hybrid to C. sasanqua: F1 hybrid 4X=60 x C. sasanqua 6X=90 will result in gametes 30 + 45 = 75chromosomes (5X, pentaploid).
  • Backcross of resulting F1 hybrid to C. japonica: F1 hybrid 4X=60 x C. japonica 2X=30 will result in gametes 30 + 15 = 45chromosomes (3X, triploid). This triploid will normally be sterile.

Books


[1] Chang Hung Ta. 1981. A taxonomy of the genus Camellia. In Chinese. Acta Scientarum Naturalium Universitatis, Sunyatseni

Chang’s book was revised in 1998 (also in Chinese). English translation of 1981 Chang’s book is available on amazon.com:

[2] Chang Hung Ta, Bruce Bartholomew. 1984. Camellias. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

[3] Ming Tianlu. 2000. Monograph of the genus Camellia. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, P.R. China

[4] J. Robert Sealy. 1958. A Revision of the Genus Camellia. The Royal Horticultural Society, London

It is possible to buy Sealy’s book on the Internet

Articles


[5] William L. Ackerman. 1971. Genetic and cytological studies with Camellia and related genera. Washington, D. C.

[6] Longley, A. E., and Tourje, E. C. Chromosome numbers of certain camellia species and allied genera. American Camellia Yearbook. 1959: 33-39.

[7] Longley, A. E., and Tourje, E. C. Chromosome numbers of certain camellia species and allied genera. American Camellia Yearbook. 1960: 70-72.

[8] Clifford Parks, K. Kondo and T.Swain. Phytochemical evidence for the genetic contamination of Camellia sasanqua Thunberg. Japanese Journal of Breeding 31(2):168

[9] John M. Ruter. Nursery production of Tea Oil Camellia under different light levels. Trends in new crops and new uses. 2002. J. Janick and A. Whipkey (eds.). ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.

[10] Xiao Tiaojiang, Clifford Parks. 2002. Molecular analysis of the genus Camellia. University of North Carolina, USA.