Tag Archive for 'Japan'

Asakura – a Japanese sasanqua with large flat semi-double white flowers and upright growing habit

Asakura (朝倉, あさくら) is a Japanese sasanqua cultivar with large, relatively flat semi-double white flowers and has a relatively vigorous upright growing habit. Asakura flower frequently has a pinkish edge early in the flower development. The stamens are relatively well developed, comparing to full double forms. It blooms relatively early. According to the book “Nippon Tsubaki – Sasanqua Meikan” (日本ツバキ・サザンカ名鑑), Asakura originated in Kurume City, Fukuoka Prefecture, and was named by Shunsuke Hisatomi. It is available in the United States from Nuccio’s Nurseries.

Asakura’s main “competitors” are Narumigata and White Doves (Mine-no-yuki). All three are fast growing with large white flowers.

Asakura versus Narumigata.

Narumigata flower is single, Asakura flower is semi-double.
Narumigata grows faster than Asakura, although Asakura is also a relatively fast growing.
Both Narumigata flower and Asakura flower have pink edges in the early stages of the flower development.

Asakura versus White Doves (Mine-no-yuki).

White Doves flower is fully double, Asakura flower is semi-double.
Asakura flower has a pinkish edge in its early stages, White Doves is completely white.
Asakura plant has a vertical habit, while White Doves is spreading.
Asakura flower is somewhat larger, more rounded, relatively more symmetrical and more flat than a typical flower of White Doves.

Comparing Asakuras with other sasanquas:
Continue reading ‘Asakura – a Japanese sasanqua with large flat semi-double white flowers and upright growing habit’

Nokorika – a Higo sasanqua with a strong scent

According to the book “Nippon Tsubaki – Sasanqua Meikan” (日本ツバキ・サザンカ名鑑):

Nokorika. 残り香 (Lingering Perfume), from Kumamoto Pref.
Deep purplish red occasionally with slender white streaks, single, medium, very early. Leaves elliptic to narrowly elliptic, medium. Upright, vigorous. The original tree survives in Kumamoto City, designated and named by Higo Sasanqua Society in 1968.

I like this cultivar. It has an interesting color, strong scent and general elegance. It is rare and I will keep it. I found it in Reagan Nursery in Fremont, California in Spring 2009. The container had a label “Belmont Nursery” which is somewhat puzzling since Belmont Nursery does not carry this cultivar (see their list of sasanquas). According to their website they carry only the standard set of sasanquas similar to sasanqua offering from Monrovia.

Another interesting thing about this plant – it is a “Higo sasanqua”. Many people know about Higo japonicas originated by samurai clan Kumamoto and promoted in the West by Italian horticulturalist Franco Ghirardi.

See also mention of ‘Nokorika’ in http://www5e.biglobe.ne.jp/~yoshii/sazannkahinnshu/hinnshu1.htm


Continue reading ‘Nokorika – a Higo sasanqua with a strong scent’

The history of camellias

The New Times magazine logo / Логотип журнала Новое ВремяRussian weekly “Novoye Vremya” (The New Times) published my article about the history of camellias in Japan, China, Europe and the United States.

Российский журнал “Новое Время” (The New Times) опубликовал мою статью об истории камелий.

http://newtimes.ru/articles/detail/3288/

To read my article in English using automatic translation by Google Translate, you can click here – http://tinyurl.com/mtroq5
Japanese – http://tinyurl.com/nzfn8e
Traditional Chinese – http://tinyurl.com/n2tegh
Simplified Chinese – http://tinyurl.com/npclos

Цветок на все времена

Романтическая красота и древность происхождения камелий стали источником множества мифов и загадочных историй, связанных с этой «царицей сада». В разные века камелия была символом и богини солнца Аматэрасу — прародительницы японских императоров, и символом Иисуса Христа, она олицетворяла то долголетие, то роковую переменчивость судьбы. При этом мало кто знает, что роскошный цветущий куст камелии — ближайший родственник чайного куста, источника экономического благополучия многих регионов Азии. Откуда взялись камелии и в чем тайна этого великолепного цветка — разбирался The New Times

Camellia— Сэр Джон поднялся наверх и принес шкатулку с драгоценностями. Когда я открыл шкатулку на столе и все собрались вокруг него, леди велела мне зажечь лампы в оранжерее, так как гости вскоре должны были идти смотреть красные камелии. Но красных камелий там не было!
— Я не понял вас.
— Они исчезли, сэр! Исчезли все до одной! — хрипло выкрикнул наш посетитель. — Когда я вошел в оранжерею, то так и прирос к мес­ту, держа лампу над головой: мне показалось, что я сошел с ума. Знаменитый куст был в полной сохранности, но от дюжины больших цветов, которыми я восхищался днем, не осталось даже лепестка.
Шерлок Холмс протянул свою длинную руку за трубкой.
— Прелестно, прелестно, — сказал он. — Эта история доставляет мне чрезвычайное удовольствие…

Адриан Конан Дойл, Джон Диксон Карр. «Рубин Авас»

Маргарита бывала на всех первых представлениях и все вечера проводила в театрах и на балах. Каждый раз, когда давалась новая пьеса, ее наверняка можно было встретить в театре с тремя вещами, с которыми она никогда не расставалась и которые лежали всегда на барьере ее ложи в бенуаре: с лорнетом, коробкой конфет и букетом камелий.
В течение двадцати пяти дней каждого месяца камелии были белые, а остальные пять дней они были красные, никому не известна была причина, почему цветы менялись…

Александр Дюма-сын. «Дама с камелиями»

Камелии — самый яркий пример разницы в восприятии красоты на Востоке и на Западе. Если поставить рядом цветки, которые были популярны среди японских самураев, и те, которыми любовались английские аристократы XIX века, то может показаться, что перед нами совсем разные растения. Но и те и другие прекрасны.

Цветок самураев

CamelliaПервое упоминание о камелиях относится к I веку нашей эры, когда губернатор провинции острова Кюсю лично прикончил главарей банды преступников дубиной, сделанной из древесины камелии. С тех пор эта часть Кюсю называется Цубаки по японскому названию камелии японской (Camellia japonica), а само поле битвы названо «Кровавое поле». Возможно, в названии отразилось то, что цветки дикой Цубаки — ярко-красного цвета, а первый в истории белый цветок этого вида появился только в VII веке и вызвал такой интерес, что его даже принесли показать императору Тэмму.
Continue reading ‘The history of camellias’

The religion of tea in China and Japan

The New Times magazine logo / Логотип журнала Новое ВремяRussian weekly “Novoye Vremya” (The New Times) published my article about the culture of tea in China and Japan. To write this article I asked several question one of the leading experts on genus Camellia – Professor Gao Jiyin from from Fuyang Institute of Subtropical Forestry, China.

Российский журнал “Новое Время” (The New Times) опубликовал мою статью о культуре чая в Китае и Японии. Для написания статьи я задал несколько вопросов одному из ведущих специалистов по ботанике чайного куста из Исследовательского института субтропической растительности в провинции Чжэцзян на юго-востоке Китая.

http://archive.newtimes.ru/magazine/2009/issue106/doc-60764.html

To read this article in English using automatic translation by Google Translate, you can click here – http://tinyurl.com/d6eues
Traditional Chinese – http://tinyurl.com/cggt7p
Simplified Chinese – http://tinyurl.com/cf7v35
Japanese – http://tinyurl.com/cf5lso

TeaРелигия чая. В Европе и Америке чай — всего лишь напиток. В Китае и Японии, откуда он пришел, — это великая культура и фантастически интересная история. Чем объясняются романтические чувства к чаю у китайцев и японцев — узнавал The New Times
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Camellia sasanqua Tai-shuhai 大朱盃

Camellia sasanqua ‘Tai-shuhai’ 大朱盃 (たいしゅはい) meaning “Large Vermilion Cup”. According to Nippon Tsubaki ・ Sasanqua Meikan, Tai-shuhai came from Fukuoka Prefecture. The cultivar originated and named in Kurume in 1960s by Shunsuke Hisatomi.

I got the cutting of this cultivar from Nuccio’s Nurseries. When the plant started to bloom on January 20, 2009, I was amazed by the freshness of colors and the shape of its flower:

Found an interesting article about a Japanese-American nurseryman Toichi Domoto

Toichi Domoto

A Japanese-American nurseryman’s life in California: floriculture and family, 1883-1992

With Introductions by Julius Nuccio and Ernest Wertheim
Interviews Conducted by Suzanne B. Riess in 1992

The Bancroft Library
University of California, Berkeley

http://tinyurl.com/4ohuw6
Copy at http://sazanka.org/pages/toichi_domoto

This sasanqua cultivar, ‘Dwarf Shishi’, was originated by Toichi Domoto in 1988:

It is excellent for bonsai.

Also I found a very likely photo pictures of Toichi Domoto (need to check with Tom Nuccio) on http://tinyurl.com/4795g8. I am almost sure this is the same one (born 1902, high school in East Bay):

Continue reading ‘Found an interesting article about a Japanese-American nurseryman Toichi Domoto’

‘Nodami Ushiro’ – a Higo-like sasanqua

Camellia sasanqua ‘Nodami Ushiro’. Introduced by Domoto Nursery, California, 1934, but is originally from Japan. Stirling Macoboy believes that the name means “a backward glance” in Japanese, but he is probably incorrect. Since I cannot find this name in Japanese sources and my Japanese wife tells me that Japanese people are not likely to name a flower this way (“mi” meaning “body”), I guess that the original name was different. From browsing the history of Toichi Domoto I got an impression that he did not know Kanji well because he was a second-generation Japanese-American. Because of it, Toichi Domoto probably made a naming mistake when he imported it.

It is difficult to explain what is so special about ‘Nodami Ushiro’. It is a single pink camellia with a lot of single pink competitors – ‘Plantation Pink’, ‘Cleopatra’, ‘Tanya’ and others. However Jennifer Trehane in her camellia book calls ‘Nodami Ushiro’ “a subtle, sophisticated camellia”. Where does this sophistication come from? I have an explanation.
Continue reading ‘‘Nodami Ushiro’ – a Higo-like sasanqua’

2008 National Camellia Show at Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania

I got two awards on 2008 National Camellia Show at Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. I took part in photography competition.

The first photo picture is of species Camellia puniceiflora from section Paracamellia:

Camellia puniceiflora (粉红短柱茶 in Chinese) Chang 1981. A wild species distributed in China: Zhejiang, Hunan. Small leaves, grows up to 2 m (6 f) high.

The second photo picture is of sasanqua cultivar called Chojiguruma:

Chojiguruma, 丁子車 in Japanese. Means “a wheel of anemone” in Japanese. Introduced in 1789. Originated in Kansai, spread to many places. This anemone form is very rare for C. sasanqua cultivars.

The complete list of all results of the Camellia Photography Show is below:
Continue reading ‘2008 National Camellia Show at Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania’

Wild form

Camellia sasanqua, selection ‘Shikoku Stars’. Thunberg 1784. Native to southern Japan: southern Shikoku, Kyushu, Ryukyu islands. Thought to be a geographical variant of C. oleifera native to China. Grows up to 26 ft (8 m) Flowers early fall to mid-winter. Chromosome numbers: 2n = 90 (wild forms), 45-120 (cultivars) (Kondo, 1977).

Camellia sasanqua, selection ‘Shikoku Stars’. Thunberg 1784. Native to southern Japan: southern Shikoku, Kyushu, Ryukyu islands. Thought to be a geographical variant of C. oleifera native to China. Grows up to 26 ft (8 m) Flowers early fall to mid-winter. Chromosome numbers: 2n = 90 (wild forms), 45-120 (cultivars) (Kondo, 1977).

Camellia sasanqua, selection ‘Shikoku Stars’. Thunberg 1784. Native to southern Japan: southern Shikoku, Kyushu, Ryukyu islands. Thought to be a geographical variant of C. oleifera native to China. Grows up to 26 ft (8 m) Flowers early fall to mid-winter. Chromosome numbers: 2n = 90 (wild forms), 45-120 (cultivars) (Kondo, 1977).

C. miyagii. Gen-ichi Koidzumi, Makino and Nemoto (1931). Ryukyu islands, Japan. Sometimes treated not as a separate species, but as a regional variety of C. sasanqua. Chromosome number: 2n = 90 (Kondo, 1977).

C. miyagii. Gen-ichi Koidzumi, Makino and Nemoto (1931). Ryukyu islands, Japan. Sometimes treated not as a separate species, but as a regional variety of C. sasanqua. Chromosome number: 2n = 90 (Kondo, 1977).

C. miyagii. Gen-ichi Koidzumi, Makino and Nemoto (1931). Ryukyu islands, Japan. Sometimes treated not as a separate species, but as a regional variety of C. sasanqua. Chromosome number: 2n = 90 (Kondo, 1977).

Big white single

Narimugata. Japan, introduced 1898. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Name means “Narumi Bay”. Pentaploid, very vigorous, was crossed with C. reticulata to get ‘Girls’ group of hybrids.

Narimugata. Japan, introduced 1898. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Name means “Narumi Bay”. Pentaploid, very vigorous, was crossed with C. reticulata to get ‘Girls’ group of hybrids.

Narimugata. Japan, introduced 1898. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Name means “Narumi Bay”. Pentaploid, very vigorous, was crossed with C. reticulata to get ‘Girls’ group of hybrids.

Narimugata. Japan, introduced 1898. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Name means “Narumi Bay”. Pentaploid, very vigorous, was crossed with C. reticulata to get ‘Girls’ group of hybrids.

Setsugekka. The meaning in Japanese is “Flower white as a snow reflected by the Moon”. Introduced in Japan. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Appeared in 1898 in Jisuke Minagawa’s Chabaika Taishu, then at Minagawa Chinka’en Nursery.

Setsugekka. The meaning in Japanese is “Flower white as a snow reflected by the Moon”. Introduced in Japan. Originated in Tokyo, spread to Saitama. Appeared in 1898 in Jisuke Minagawa’s Chabaika Taishu, then at Minagawa Chinka’en Nursery.

Apple Blossom (from Monrovia). The Japanese name is ‘Fukuzutsumi’, meaning “a bag of good fortune”. The clone available in the West was imported in 1891 from Yokohama Nursery by Victorian nurseryman Basil Hodgins and sent to Bill Wylam in California. Clone available from Monrovia Nurseries greatly differs from clone from Nuccio’s Nurseries and Filoli Garden.

Apple Blossom (from Filoli). The Japanese name is ‘Fukuzutsumi’, meaning “a bag of good fortune”. The clone available in the West was imported in 1891 from Yokohama Nursery by Victorian nurseryman Basil Hodgins and sent to Bill Wylam in California. Clone available from Monrovia Nurseries greatly differs from clone from Nuccio’s Nurseries and Filoli Garden.

White double

White Doves. The Japanese name is ‘Mine-no-yuki’ meaning “Snow on the Ridge”. Introduced in 1898.

White Doves. The Japanese name is ‘Mine-no-yuki’ meaning “Snow on the Ridge”. Introduced in 1898.

Little Pearl. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Little Pearl. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Single pinks

Cleopatra. Imported from Japan in 1929. First made available for sale in the United States by Kosaku Sawada in Alabama in 1934.

Cleopatra. Imported from Japan in 1929. First made available for sale in the United States by Kosaku Sawada in Alabama in 1934.

Plantation Pink. Originated by E.G. Waterhouse, New South Wales, Australia in 1948.

Hugh Evans. Originated in Coolidge Rare Garden Plants, California in 1943.

Double pinks

Shishigashira. C. x hiemalis. Means “Lion’s Head” in Japanese. Originated and spread in Kansai and Chubu. First mentioned in Engeikai Zasshi in 1894. Called ‘Kan-tsubaki’ in Kanto area since 1933.

Kanjiro. C. x hiemalis. Introduced by Takii & Co. Ltd., Japan in 1954. Originated in Aichi Prefecture. The original tree was raised in Inazawa City. Sometimes single, sometimes semi-double. Very vigorous, widely used for rootstock.

Jean May. Originated by Ralph May, Gerbing’s Camellia Nursery of Fernandino, Florida in 1951. The flower has a very special shade of light pink.

Jean May. Originated by Ralph May, Gerbing’s Camellia Nursery of Fernandino, Florida in 1951. The flower has a very special shade of light pink.

Semi-formal pinks

Chansonette. Introduced in 1958. A seedling of ‘Shishigashira’.

Enishi. Means “Charming Appearance” in Japanese. It is probably a synonym of 艶姿 (あですがた, Adesugata, “Sexy female body”). Originated in Kumamoto. A seedling of a seed given to Kiyofusa Saito by Shigeru Sugiyama. This cultivar is recognized by Higo Sasanqua Society.

Sarrel. A recent origination from Bobby Green in Fairhope, Alabama. Available from Camellia Forest Nursery, North Carolina. Very spreading, can be kept under 2 feet tall with pruning.

Sarrel. A recent origination from Bobby Green in Fairhope, Alabama. Available from Camellia Forest Nursery, North Carolina. Very spreading, can be kept under 2 feet tall with pruning.

Peony pinks

Showa Supreme. A seedling of ‘Showa-no-sakae’, originated in Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1956.

Showa-no-sakae. C. x hiemalis. The name means “Glory of Showa Era” in Japanese. This cultivar was named after Japanese Emperor Hirohito, whose reign got the title “Showa”, “the era of enlightened peace”. According to Ishii’s Engei Daijiten (1950), Showa-no-Sakae was introduced by Jisuke Minagawa in Saitama in 1937 from a seedling originated in Kansai area (?).

Rosette. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1980.

Rosette. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1980.

Bert Jones. Introduced in 1967

Bert Jones. Introduced in 1967

Anemone pinks

Chojiguruma. Means “a wheel of anemone” in Japanese. Introduced in 1789. Originated in Kansai, spread to many places.

Chojiguruma. Means “a wheel of anemone” in Japanese. Introduced in 1789. Originated in Kansai, spread to many places.

Chojiguruma. Means “a wheel of anemone” in Japanese. Introduced in 1789. Originated in Kansai, spread to many places.

Yuletide and Hiryu

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

Hiryu. C. x vernalis. Introduced in Nakayama, Japan in 1847. Originated from Kansai, spread to many places. In Australia it is called ‘Kanjiro’ (the real ‘Kanjiro’ is different). A parent of ‘Yuletide’.

Hiryu. C. x vernalis. Introduced in Nakayama, Japan in 1847. Originated from Kansai, spread to many places. In Australia it is called ‘Kanjiro’ (the real ‘Kanjiro’ is different). A parent of ‘Yuletide’.

Hiryu. C. x vernalis. Introduced in Nakayama, Japan in 1847. Originated from Kansai, spread to many places. In Australia it is called ‘Kanjiro’ (the real ‘Kanjiro’ is different). A parent of ‘Yuletide’.

Bicolor

Navajo. Imported from Japan by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1956. The original name is lost.

Old Glory

Double Rainbow. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Double Rainbow. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Egao group

Egao. C. x vernalis. Name means “smiling face” in Japanese. Originated in Kurume or Fukuoka. Imported to the United States by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in either 1972 or 1977 (?).

Grady’s Egao. C. x vernalis. A sport of Egao.

Other species and hybrids

C. kissii. Wallich 1820. Was callected by botanist named Kiss. Wide range in Southeast Asia – SE China (Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan), Myanmar, Bhutan, northern India, Kampuchea, Laos, Nepal, Sikkim, Thailand and Vietnam. Highly variable, flowers have creamy yellowish tint, flowers in winter.

C. kissii. Wallich 1820. Was callected by botanist named Kiss. Wide range in Southeast Asia – SE China (Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan), Myanmar, Bhutan, northern India, Kampuchea, Laos, Nepal, Sikkim, Thailand and Vietnam. Highly variable, flowers have creamy yellowish tint, flowers in winter.

C. kissii. Wallich 1820. Was callected by botanist named Kiss. Wide range in Southeast Asia – SE China (Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan), Myanmar, Bhutan, northern India, Kampuchea, Laos, Nepal, Sikkim, Thailand and Vietnam. Highly variable, flowers have creamy yellowish tint, flowers in winter.

Buttermint. A hybrid of C. kissii. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1997. Keeps creamy yellowish tint, inherited from C. kissii parent.

C. grijsii. Hance 1879. Was collected in 1861 in Fujian by C.F.M. de Grijs. Distributed in China: Fujian, Hubei, Sichuan, Guangxi. Tidy upright bushes, impressed veins, related to C. yuhsienensis that has larger flowers, there is a double form called ‘Zhenzhu Cha’. Grows to 11 ft (3 m) high, flowers winter to spring. C. yuhsienensis. Hu 1965. Discovered on the mountain Yuh Shan (You Xian) in Hunan in 1960s. Distributed in China: Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Guangdong. Best quality oil of any species, grows to 11 ft (3 m) high, flowers winter to spring, parent of ‘Yume’. Chromosome numbers: 2n = 30, 45, 75 and 90 (Gu, et al., 1988; Kondo, 1990; Xiao, et al., 1991).

Yume. C. x hiemalis ‘Shishigashira’ x C. yuhsienensis. The name means “Dream” in Japanese. The flower has a very unusual alternation of white and pink petals. Originated in Japan.

Yume. C. x hiemalis ‘Shishigashira’ x C. yuhsienensis. The name means “Dream” in Japanese. The flower has a very unusual alternation of white and pink petals. Originated in Japan.

C. puniceiflora. Chang 1981. Distributed in China: Zhejiang, Hunan. Small leaves, grows up to 2 m (6 f) high.

C. puniceiflora. Chang 1981. Distributed in China: Zhejiang, Hunan. Small leaves, grows up to 2 m (6 f) high.

C. puniceiflora. Chang 1981. Distributed in China: Zhejiang, Hunan. Small leaves, grows up to 2 m (6 f) high.

C. puniceiflora. Chang 1981. Distributed in China: Zhejiang, Hunan. Small leaves, grows up to 2 m (6 f) high.

C. puniceiflora. Chang 1981. Distributed in China: Zhejiang, Hunan. Small leaves, grows up to 2 m (6 f) high.

C. brevistyla form. rubida. C. brevistyla (Hay.) Cohen Stuart (1916) form. rubida P. L. Chiu (1987). Distributed in China in hilly areas of Longquan in Zhejiang Province. Chromosome number: 2n = 30 (Kondo, 1977).

C. brevistyla form. rubida. C. brevistyla (Hay.) Cohen Stuart (1916) form. rubida P. L. Chiu (1987). Distributed in China in hilly areas of Longquan in Zhejiang Province. Chromosome number: 2n = 30 (Kondo, 1977).

Gingetsu Perkins. A misnamed cultivar, sent to Nuccio’s Nurseries, California. Possibly a sasanqua-reticulata hybrid.

Gingetsu Perkins. A misnamed cultivar, sent to Nuccio’s Nurseries, California. Possibly a sasanqua-reticulata hybrid.

Gingetsu Perkins. A misnamed cultivar, sent to Nuccio’s Nurseries, California. Possibly a sasanqua-reticulata hybrid.

Kai Mei’s Choice. C. sasanqua x (C. sasanqua x C. reticulata). Originated in Camellia Forest Nursery, North Carolina.

Stars’N’Stripes. A chance seedling of ‘Christmas Rose’ (Williams’ Lavender x Shishigashira). Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Stars’N’Stripes. A chance seedling of ‘Christmas Rose’ (Williams’ Lavender x Shishigashira). Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Stars’N’Stripes. A chance seedling of ‘Christmas Rose’ (Williams’ Lavender x Shishigashira). Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Stars’N’Stripes. A chance seedling of ‘Christmas Rose’ (Williams’ Lavender x Shishigashira). Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Low growing and small foliage

Dwarf Shishi. A seedling of ‘Shishigashira’. Originated by Toichi Domoto, California in 1988.

Dwarf Shishi. A seedling of ‘Shishigashira’. Originated by Toichi Domoto, California in 1988.

Jewel Box

Jewel Box

Twinkle, Twinkle. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Sasanqua Compacta. Very short leaf internodes. From Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Sasanqua Compacta. Very short leaf internodes. From Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Slim’N’Trim. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Slim’N’Trim. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California.

Starry Pillar (N#9820). A chance seedling, might be a sasanqua-tenuiflora hybrid. Columnar habit. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries.

Starry Pillar (N#9820). A chance seedling, might be a sasanqua-tenuiflora hybrid. Columnar habit. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries.

Tanya. Introduced by Coolidge Rare Plants, east Pasadena, California in 1937. Produced from a seed imported from Japan in 1927.

Tanya. Introduced by Coolidge Rare Plants, east Pasadena, California in 1937. Produced from a seed imported from Japan in 1927.

A book from the Japanese Camellia Society ‘The Nomenclature of Japanese Camellias and Sasanquas’


'The Nomenclature of Japanese Camellias and Sasanquas'. The Japanese Camellia Society.

“The Nomenclature of Japanese Camellias and Sasanquas” ( 日本ツバキ・サザンカ名鑑 , Nippon Tsubaki ・ Sasanqua Meikan) is another “must have” book for any serious sasanqua lover. This book was published in 1999 by the Japanese Camellia Society ( 日本ツバキ協会編 , Nippon Tsubaki Kyoukai Hen) and Seibundo Shinkosha Co. Ltd. ( 誠文堂 新光社 ). This book is a work of more than 50 people who collected high-quality photo pictures and information on more than 2200 japonica and 200 sasanqua cultivars.

The book consists of two volumes – a volume in Japanese with pictures and a volume with English translation, created under the supervision of Thomas J. Savige. Note that in the book “The Japanese Camellia Society” is referred as “The Japan Camellia Society”.

The book has a short preface (4 pages), telling the history of the Japanese Camellia Society and the history of the book publication.

The Japanese Camellia Society was formed after the WWII, shortly after the formation of the International Camellia Society in 1953. It was the time of worldwide surge of interest in camellia growing and hybridizing.

The first nomenclature publication “Japanese Camellias, a Collection of 1000 varieties” ( 日本の椿、千品種 , Nippon no tsubaki, Senhin-shu) was published in 1980, but it included only Camellia japonica ( 椿, tsubaki ) and had no infomation about sasanqua ( 山茶花 , sazanka).

After the International Camellia Society published a monumental International Camellia Register in 1993 with 22,000 cultivars, it became obvious that the Japanese nomenclature publication has to be updated. However, according to the Japanese Camellia Society, during the economic boom time, no Japanese publisher wanted to publish a camellia book, because of its low profitability – there were plenty of more profitable books around. So Japanese camellia lovers had to wait until the economy goes down!

After the preface, the book presents information about 2400 cultivars. Each cultivar’s information has a photo picture and a 100-Kanji description. Some cultivars have no photo pictures – they are described in the appendix. The description is brief and very informative – it describes the cultivar’s area of origin, color, shape, habit, name of the originator and first mention in the literature. I wish similar American publications (like Southern California Camellia Society) use the same style.

Finally, after more than 300 pages of cultivars, the book has a chapter about the camellia history (3 pages), an afterword (1 page), a translator’s note (1 page) and an index. I personally like this style because it is down to the point.

The chapter about camellia history is written by the President of the Japanese Camellia Society Dr. Kaoru Hagiya ( 薫屋薫 ). It contains an interesting thought about why Japanese people prefer single flowers while Westerners prefer double formal flowers: ”The fundamental difference is in that the Westerners treat flowers as kinds of decorations, while Japanese take flowers as the symbols of nature”.

The afterword is written by Shuho Kirino ( 桐野秋豊 ), a member of the editorial committee.

There is a translator’s note from Shigeo Matsumoto ( 松本重雄 ) who is asking forgiveness for his translation errors. I did find some ambiguities – for example, about the origin of ‘Shôwa-no-sakae’. However I personally like his style of translation because it has a feeling of the Japanese character. If the translator would be non-Japanese, the text would be less authentic.

Shigeo Matsumoto was using help from Thomas J. Savige from Australia who suggested to use Hepburn system in the translation according to the International Nomenclature Code. This is very important. Different books use different forms of English transliteration of Japanese names. For example ‘Shôwa-no-sakae’ is written as ‘Showa No Sakae’, or ‘Shishigashira’ is written as ‘Shishi Gashira’ or ‘Shishi Gashira’. It is important to understand that pronouncing “o” instead of “ô” may change the meaning of the word. However we are still using non-accented “o” on our www.sazanka.org web site because of English search engines. But the bottom line – “The Nomenclature of Japanese Camellias and Sasanquas” became for me the main reference for the proper name, pronunciation and the history of Japanese sasanqua cultivars.

Happy blooming New Year!

Today the newspaper San Francisco Chronicle published my photo picture of the Camellia hybrid ‘Yuletide’. The photo appeared in as an illustration to an article written by Demetra Bowles Lathrop. The name of the article is “Happy blooming New Year! Camellias, hellebores, winter hazel can brighten desolate Bay Area gardens” and it appeared in the gardening section.

You can get the article from the newspaper’s website: http://tinyurl.com/6clpca

Сегодня, 10-го января, газета Сан-Франциско Кроникл напечатала мою фотографии камелии ‘Юлетайд’. Фотография иллюстрирует статью журналистки Деми Латроп про растения, цветущие в области Сан-Францисского залива во время Нового Года.

Yuletide. C. x vernalis. Originated by Nuccio’s Nurseries, California in 1963. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.
Continue reading ‘Happy blooming New Year!’

This beauty shows its colors early

A couple of week ago I got a call from journalist Lili Singer, who needed some information about Camellia sasanqua for her article in Los Angeles Times. Today this article was published. You can see my sasanqua cultivar recommendations in the article.

Dwarf Shishi. A seedling of ‘Shishigashira’. Originated by Toichi Domoto, California in 1988.

You can get the article from LA Times archive: http://tinyurl.com/64cyo7

Continue reading ‘This beauty shows its colors early’

Camellia sasanqua botany (with pictures)

Camellia sasanqua botany (with pictures)

Yuri Panchul, June 2003


Camellia sasanqua ‘Shikoku Stars’. A wild variety.


Camellia miyagii

Contents


Camellia puniceiflora


Camellia brevistyla var. rubida

Taxonomy

There are three most recent classification systems of the genus Camellia frequently referred in Camellia literature: Sealy 1958 [4], Chang 1981 [1] and Ming 2000 [3].

Taxonomy – Sealy

J. Robert Sealy divided genus Camellia into 12 species group (sections). He put C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi into section Paracamellia, C. hiemalis and C. miyagii into unplaced (artificial) section Dubiae.

Sealy’s Paracamellia consisted of ten species. Their main feature was short styles and minimal fusion of floral parts.

In 1971 Dr. William L. Ackerman shown in his article [5] that C. hiemalis and C. miyagii freely hybridize with species of section Paracamellia and suggested they should be in one section.

Taxonomy – Chang

Chang Hung Ta (1981, [1]) divided genus Camellia into four subgenera and 20 sections. He put C. sasanqua and C. oleifera into section Oleifera of Camellia subgenus. Then he put C. kissi and C. miyagii into section Paracamellia of the same subgenus and C. hiemalis into section Camellia subsection Reticulata of the same genus.

We believe later Chang Hung Ta corrected C. hiemalis classification and put it back into section Paracamellia.

Chang stated that the reason five species should be put into a separate Oleifera section is because they have more stamen series and relatively longer styles. Xiao Tiaojiang and Clifford Parks (2002, [10]) doubted Chang’s reasons for dividing Paracamellia into two sections (Paracamellia and Oleifera). They noticed that wild forms of C. sasanqua (Changs’s section Oleifera) and C. miyagii (Chang’s section Paracamellia) are virtually identical and can be considered a one species. They also did DNA sequence analysis and found all species of Changs’s Oleifera section to be clustered with a group of species in Paracamellia section.

Xiao Tiaojiang and Clifford Parks also shown by DNA analysis that some of Chang’s Paracamellia species may be in fact not belonging to Paracamellia section, for example C. grijsii, C. odorata and C. yusienensis. They fall into the clade of section Camellia species from Western China.

Taxonomy – Ming

Ming Tianlu (2000, [3]) divided genus Camellia into two subgenera and 14 sections. We do not have his book so we cannot describe his treatment of Paracamellia species. Neither Sealy nor Chang recognized C. vernalis to be a separate species. In fact, many researchers consider C. vernalis to be a complicated sasanqua-japonica hybrid (see the details below). Some researches also consider C. hiemalis a sasanqua-japonica hybrid.

According to William Ackerman, when he traveled in 1980 on a plant exploration trip to western Japan, he saw wild populations of both C. sasanqua and C. japonica growing adjacent to each other, and intermingled. There were also obvious hybrids showing intermediate phenotypic characteristics. Ackerman’s cytological analysis of a series of C. vernalis cultivars showed chromosomal evidence of both 1st and 2nd generation hybridization.

On the other hand, Ackerman strongly disagree with those who consider C. hiemalis a hybrid with C. japonica parentage. He does not see neither cytological nor phenotypical evidence to support this.


Camellia x vernalis ‘Hiryu’. A parent of ‘Yuletide’.


Camellia x vernalis ‘Yuletide’. A seedling of ‘Hiryu’.

Species

Species by Chang Hung Ta classification

Section Oleifera Chang

C. gauchowensis Chang (1961)
C. lanceoleosa
C. oleifera Abel (1818)
C. sasanqua Thunb. (1784)
C. vietnamensis Hung ex Hu (1965)

Section Paracamellia Sealy

C. brevistyla (Hay.) Cohen-Stuart (1908)
C. confusa (Craib) Cohen-Stuart (1916)
C. fluviatilis Hand.-Mazz. (1922). (Synonim C. kissi)
C. grijsii Hance (1879)
C. hiemalis Nakai (1940)
C. maliflolia Lindl. (1827)
C. microphylla (Merr.) Chien (1937)
C. miyagii (Koidz.) Mak. & Nem. (1931)
C. obtusifolia Chang (1981)
C. odorata
C. phaeoclada Chang (1981)
C. puniceiflora Chang (1981)
C. shensiensis Chang ex Chang (1981)
C. tenii Sealy (1949)
C. weiningensis Y.K. Li ex Chang (1981)
C. yuhsienensis Hu (1965)

Section Paracamellia Sealy – not in Chang’s list, but from the International Camellia Society website:

C. brevissima Chang & Liang (1982)
C. lutescens Dyer in Hook. (1874)
C. octopetala Hu in Acta Phytotax. Sin. vol.X, No.2, 1965
C. paucipetala Chang, (1984).


Camellia oleifera


Camellia hybrid ‘Winter’s Rose’. C. oleifera ‘Plain Jane’ x C. x hiemalis ‘Otome’. An Ackerman hybrid.

Compatibility

According to William L. Ackerman (1971, [5]), C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi of Sealy’s section Paracamellia hybridize with each other very readily. In Ackerman’s research the compatibility ratio of hybrids in relation to total cross-polunations was 29 percent, the highest withing any of the section he experimented.

Ackerman also hybridized hiemalis and C. miyagii of Sealy’s section Dubiae (Chang’s section Paracamellia). The compatibility ratio was 19 percent.

Ackerman also found that C. hiemalis and C. miyagii of Sealy’s section Dubiae hybridized as easily as when intrasectional crosses were made within Sealy’s section Paracamellia (C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi). The compatibility ratio was 18 percent for C. miyagii and 13 percent for C. hiemalis.

All these percentage numbers compare with just 9 percent for intrasectional crosses within section Camellia.

Ackerman indicated that C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi are ecospecies. He also suggested C. hiemalis and C. miyagii are ecospecies as well and should be put into Sealy’s section Paracamellia.

In Ackerman’s experiments section Thea appeared to be more closely related to section Paracamellia and to C. hiemalis and C. miyagii of Dubiae than to species of other sections.


Camellia kissii. A parent of ‘Buttermint’.


Camellia hybrid ‘Buttermint’. A seedling of C. kissii. Nuccio’s Nurseries, California, 1997.

Chromosomes

The basic chromosome number in the genus Camellia is 15. Different species have chromosome numbers of 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90. According to Ackerman [5] C. sasanqua, C. hiemalis, C. oleifera and C. miyagii are generally hexaploids (chromosome number 6X=90).

C. kissi is a diploid (2X=30).

C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ is a pentaploid (5X=75)

C. vernalis ‘Hirya’ was reported to be a triploid (3X=45) by Longley and Tourje (1959 [6], 1960 [7]).

Most C. japonica and C. sinensis are diploid (2X=30).

There are rare cases of triploid C. sinensis (3X=45).

The following numbers of chromosomes were reported by Ackerman [5] for crosses:

C. japonica 30 x C. kissi 30 = 30
C. kissi 30 x C. rusticana 30 = 30
             
C. japonica 30 x C. miyagii 90 = 60
             
C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ 75 x C. granthamiana 60 = 60
C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ 75 x C. reticulata 90 = 90
             
C. oleifera 90 x C. hiemalis 90 = 90
C. oleifera 90 x C. miyagii 90 = 90
C. reticulata 90 x C. sasanqua 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. hiemalis 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. miyagii 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. miyagii 90 = 86
C. sasanqua 90 x C. oleifera 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. reticulata 90 = 90

According to Ackerman [5] “‘Narumigata’, a pentaploid variety of C. sasanqua, produced hybrids when used as the female parent. However, the chromosome number of its hybrids seem unpredictable. A hybrid, A-24, resulting from C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ (5X=75) x C. granthamiana (4X=60) was tetraploid (4X=60). The morphological characters of this hybrid were intermediate. It is generally difficult to assess accurately the contribution of each parent to the hybrid in crosses involving polyploid species without the aid of genetical or cytological markers. However, ‘Narumigata’ may have produced an egg with 30 chromosomes, which united with a sperm carrying 30 chromosomes from C. granthamiana. A hybrid of C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ x C. reticulata (6X=90) was hexaploid. In this case, ‘Narumigata’ may have produced an egg cell with 45 chromosomes.”

William Ackerman also reports in his recent correspondence C. vernalis tetraploid (4X=60) and pentaploid (5X=75). This is what one would expect along the following lines, which substantiates the hybrid nature of C. vernalis:

  • 1st Generation (F1) hybrid between C. sasanqua 6X=90 x C. japonica 2X=30 with result in gametes 45 + 15 = 60 chromosomes (4X,tetraploid).
  • Backcross of resulting F1 hybrid to C. sasanqua: F1 hybrid 4X=60 x C. sasanqua 6X=90 will result in gametes 30 + 45 = 75chromosomes (5X, pentaploid).
  • Backcross of resulting F1 hybrid to C. japonica: F1 hybrid 4X=60 x C. japonica 2X=30 will result in gametes 30 + 15 = 45chromosomes (3X, triploid). This triploid will normally be sterile.


Camellia sasanqua ‘Narimugata’. Pentaploid.


Camellia x reticulata hybrid ‘Kai Mei’s Choice’. C. sasanqua x (C. sasanqua x C. reticulata), Camellia Forest Nursery.

Books


[1] Chang Hung Ta. 1981. A taxonomy of the genus Camellia. In Chinese. Acta Scientarum Naturalium Universitatis, Sunyatseni

Chang’s book was revised in 1998 (also in Chinese). English translation of 1981 Chang’s book is available on amazon.com:

[2] Chang Hung Ta, Bruce Bartholomew. 1984. Camellias. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

[3] Ming Tianlu. 2000. Monograph of the genus Camellia. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, P.R. China

[4] J. Robert Sealy. 1958. A Revision of the Genus Camellia. The Royal Horticultural Society, London

It is possible to buy Sealy’s book on the Internet


Camellia x vernalis ‘Egao’. Means “smiling face” in Japanese.

Articles

[5] William L. Ackerman. 1971. Genetic and cytological studies with Camellia and related genera. Washington, D. C.

[6] Longley, A. E., and Tourje, E. C. Chromosome numbers of certain camellia species and allied genera. American Camellia Yearbook. 1959: 33-39.

[7] Longley, A. E., and Tourje, E. C. Chromosome numbers of certain camellia species and allied genera. American Camellia Yearbook. 1960: 70-72.

[8] Clifford Parks, K. Kondo and T.Swain. Phytochemical evidence for the genetic contamination of Camellia sasanqua Thunberg. Japanese Journal of Breeding 31(2):168

[9] John M. Ruter. Nursery production of Tea Oil Camellia under different light levels. Trends in new crops and new uses. 2002. J. Janick and A. Whipkey (eds.). ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.

[10] Xiao Tiaojiang, Clifford Parks. 2002. Molecular analysis of the genus Camellia. University of North Carolina, USA.


Camellia grijsii


Camellia x yuhsienensis hybrid ‘Yume’. C. x hiemalis ‘Shishi Gashira’ x C. yuhsienensis, Dr. Kaoru Hagiya.

Camellia sasanqua botany

Yuri Panchul, June 2003

Contents

Taxonomy

There are three most recent classification systems of the genus Camellia frequently referred in Camellia literature: Sealy 1958 [4], Chang 1981 [1] and Ming 2000 [3].

Taxonomy – Sealy

J. Robert Sealy divided genus Camellia into 12 species group (sections). He put C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi into section Paracamellia, C. hiemalis and C. miyagii into unplaced (artificial) section Dubiae.

Sealy’s Paracamellia consisted of ten species. Their main feature was short styles and minimal fusion of floral parts.

In 1971 Dr. William L. Ackerman shown in his article [5] that C. hiemalis and C. miyagii freely hybridize with species of section Paracamellia and suggested they should be in one section.

Taxonomy – Chang

Chang Hung Ta (1981, [1]) divided genus Camellia into four subgenera and 20 sections. He put C. sasanqua and C. oleifera into section Oleifera of Camellia subgenus. Then he put C. kissi and C. miyagii into section Paracamellia of the same subgenus and C. hiemalis into section Camellia subsection Reticulata of the same genus.

We believe later Chang Hung Ta corrected C. hiemalis classification and put it back into section Paracamellia.

Chang stated that the reason five species should be put into a separate Oleifera section is because they have more stamen series and relatively longer styles. Xiao Tiaojiang and Clifford Parks (2002, [10]) doubted Chang’s reasons for dividing Paracamellia into two sections (Paracamellia and Oleifera). They noticed that wild forms of C. sasanqua (Changs’s section Oleifera) and C. miyagii (Chang’s section Paracamellia) are virtually identical and can be considered a one species. They also did DNA sequence analysis and found all species of Changs’s Oleifera section to be clustered with a group of species in Paracamellia section.

Xiao Tiaojiang and Clifford Parks also shown by DNA analysis that some of Chang’s Paracamellia species may be in fact not belonging to Paracamellia section, for example C. grijsii, C. odorata and C. yusienensis. They fall into the clade of section Camellia species from Western China.

Taxonomy – Ming

Ming Tianlu (2000, [3]) divided genus Camellia into two subgenera and 14 sections. We do not have his book so we cannot describe his treatment of Paracamellia species. Neither Sealy nor Chang recognized C. vernalis to be a separate species. In fact, many researchers consider C. vernalis to be a complicated sasanqua-japonica hybrid (see the details below). Some researches also consider C. hiemalis a sasanqua-japonica hybrid.

According to William Ackerman, when he traveled in 1980 on a plant exploration trip to western Japan, he saw wild populations of both C. sasanqua and C. japonica growing adjacent to each other, and intermingled. There were also obvious hybrids showing intermediate phenotypic characteristics. Ackerman’s cytological analysis of a series of C. vernalis cultivars showed chromosomal evidence of both 1st and 2nd generation hybridization.

On the other hand, Ackerman strongly disagree with those who consider C. hiemalis a hybrid with C. japonica parentage. He does not see neither cytological nor phenotypical evidence to support this.

Species

Species by Chang Hung Ta classification

Section Oleifera Chang

C. gauchowensis Chang (1961)
C. lanceoleosa
C. oleifera Abel (1818)
C. sasanqua Thunb. (1784)
C. vietnamensis Hung ex Hu (1965)

Section Paracamellia Sealy

C. brevistyla (Hay.) Cohen-Stuart (1908)
C. confusa (Craib) Cohen-Stuart (1916)
C. fluviatilis Hand.-Mazz. (1922). (Synonim C. kissi)
C. grijsii Hance (1879)
C. hiemalis Nakai (1940)
C. maliflolia Lindl. (1827)
C. microphylla (Merr.) Chien (1937)
C. miyagii (Koidz.) Mak. & Nem. (1931)
C. obtusifolia Chang (1981)
C. odorata
C. phaeoclada Chang (1981)
C. puniceiflora Chang (1981)
C. shensiensis Chang ex Chang (1981)
C. tenii Sealy (1949)
C. weiningensis Y.K. Li ex Chang (1981)
C. yuhsienensis Hu (1965)

Section Paracamellia Sealy – not in Chang’s list, but from the International Camellia Society website:

C. brevissima Chang & Liang (1982)
C. lutescens Dyer in Hook. (1874)
C. octopetala Hu in Acta Phytotax. Sin. vol.X, No.2, 1965
C. paucipetala Chang, (1984).

Compatibility

According to William L. Ackerman (1971, [5]), C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi of Sealy’s section Paracamellia hybridize with each other very readily. In Ackerman’s research the compatibility ratio of hybrids in relation to total cross-polunations was 29 percent, the highest withing any of the section he experimented.

Ackerman also hybridized hiemalis and C. miyagii of Sealy’s section Dubiae (Chang’s section Paracamellia). The compatibility ratio was 19 percent.

Ackerman also found that C. hiemalis and C. miyagii of Sealy’s section Dubiae hybridized as easily as when intrasectional crosses were made within Sealy’s section Paracamellia (C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi). The compatibility ratio was 18 percent for C. miyagii and 13 percent for C. hiemalis.

All these percentage numbers compare with just 9 percent for intrasectional crosses within section Camellia.

Ackerman indicated that C. sasanqua, C. oleifera and C. kissi are ecospecies. He also suggested C. hiemalis and C. miyagii are ecospecies as well and should be put into Sealy’s section Paracamellia.

In Ackerman’s experiments section Thea appeared to be more closely related to section Paracamellia and to C. hiemalis and C. miyagii of Dubiae than to species of other sections.

Chromosomes

The basic chromosome number in the genus Camellia is 15. Different species have chromosome numbers of 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90. According to Ackerman [5] C. sasanqua, C. hiemalis, C. oleifera and C. miyagii are generally hexaploids (chromosome number 6X=90).

C. kissi is a diploid (2X=30).

C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ is a pentaploid (5X=75)

C. vernalis ‘Hiryu’ was reported to be a triploid (3X=45) by Longley and Tourje (1959 [6], 1960 [7]).

Most C. japonica and C. sinensis are diploid (2X=30).

There are rare cases of triploid C. sinensis (3X=45).

The following numbers of chromosomes were reported by Ackerman [5] for crosses:

C. japonica 30 x C. kissi 30 = 30
C. kissi 30 x C. rusticana 30 = 30
             
C. japonica 30 x C. miyagii 90 = 60
             
C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ 75 x C. granthamiana 60 = 60
C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ 75 x C. reticulata 90 = 90
             
C. oleifera 90 x C. hiemalis 90 = 90
C. oleifera 90 x C. miyagii 90 = 90
C. reticulata 90 x C. sasanqua 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. hiemalis 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. miyagii 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. miyagii 90 = 86
C. sasanqua 90 x C. oleifera 90 = 90
C. sasanqua 90 x C. reticulata 90 = 90

According to Ackerman [5] “‘Narumigata’, a pentaploid variety of C. sasanqua, produced hybrids when used as the female parent. However, the chromosome number of its hybrids seem unpredictable. A hybrid, A-24, resulting from C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ (5X=75) x C. granthamiana (4X=60) was tetraploid (4X=60). The morphological characters of this hybrid were intermediate. It is generally difficult to assess accurately the contribution of each parent to the hybrid in crosses involving polyploid species without the aid of genetical or cytological markers. However, ‘Narumigata’ may have produced an egg with 30 chromosomes, which united with a sperm carrying 30 chromosomes from C. granthamiana. A hybrid of C. sasanqua ‘Narumigata’ x C. reticulata (6X=90) was hexaploid. In this case, ‘Narumigata’ may have produced an egg cell with 45 chromosomes.”

William Ackerman also reports in his recent correspondence C. vernalis tetraploid (4X=60) and pentaploid (5X=75). This is what one would expect along the following lines, which substantiates the hybrid nature of C. vernalis:

  • 1st Generation (F1) hybrid between C. sasanqua 6X=90 x C. japonica 2X=30 with result in gametes 45 + 15 = 60 chromosomes (4X,tetraploid).
  • Backcross of resulting F1 hybrid to C. sasanqua: F1 hybrid 4X=60 x C. sasanqua 6X=90 will result in gametes 30 + 45 = 75chromosomes (5X, pentaploid).
  • Backcross of resulting F1 hybrid to C. japonica: F1 hybrid 4X=60 x C. japonica 2X=30 will result in gametes 30 + 15 = 45chromosomes (3X, triploid). This triploid will normally be sterile.

Books


[1] Chang Hung Ta. 1981. A taxonomy of the genus Camellia. In Chinese. Acta Scientarum Naturalium Universitatis, Sunyatseni

Chang’s book was revised in 1998 (also in Chinese). English translation of 1981 Chang’s book is available on amazon.com:

[2] Chang Hung Ta, Bruce Bartholomew. 1984. Camellias. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

[3] Ming Tianlu. 2000. Monograph of the genus Camellia. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, P.R. China

[4] J. Robert Sealy. 1958. A Revision of the Genus Camellia. The Royal Horticultural Society, London

It is possible to buy Sealy’s book on the Internet

Articles


[5] William L. Ackerman. 1971. Genetic and cytological studies with Camellia and related genera. Washington, D. C.

[6] Longley, A. E., and Tourje, E. C. Chromosome numbers of certain camellia species and allied genera. American Camellia Yearbook. 1959: 33-39.

[7] Longley, A. E., and Tourje, E. C. Chromosome numbers of certain camellia species and allied genera. American Camellia Yearbook. 1960: 70-72.

[8] Clifford Parks, K. Kondo and T.Swain. Phytochemical evidence for the genetic contamination of Camellia sasanqua Thunberg. Japanese Journal of Breeding 31(2):168

[9] John M. Ruter. Nursery production of Tea Oil Camellia under different light levels. Trends in new crops and new uses. 2002. J. Janick and A. Whipkey (eds.). ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.

[10] Xiao Tiaojiang, Clifford Parks. 2002. Molecular analysis of the genus Camellia. University of North Carolina, USA.